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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy on Early Childhood Growth Trajectories and Obesity Risk: The CANDLE Study

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
2
Departments of Pediatrics and Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, and Children’s Foundation Research Institute, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital, Memphis, TN 38103, USA
3
Center for Biomedical Informatics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38103, USA
4
Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
5
Departments of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
6
Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Center for Child Health, Behavior, and Development, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
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Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA
8
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
9
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020465
Received: 15 January 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 10 February 2020 / Published: 13 February 2020
We investigated the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and early childhood growth trajectories and overweight/obesity risk in offspring. Maternal diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire during the second trimester, and dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. The associations between maternal dietary pattern scores and body mass index (BMI) trajectories from birth to age four (rising-high, moderate, and low BMI trajectories) as well as overweight/obesity risk at age four were analyzed (n = 1257). Two maternal dietary patterns were identified. The fast food pattern included a higher intake of fried chicken and fish, fruit juices, mayonnaise, and sugar-sweetened beverages, while the processed food pattern included a higher intake of dairy, salad dressing, processed meat, and cold breakfast cereal. Women with greater adherence to the fast food pattern were more likely to have children in the rising-high BMI trajectory group [OR (95% CI) = 1.32 (1.07–1.62); p = 0.008] or having overweight/obesity at age four [OR (95% CI) = 1.31 (1.11–1.54); p = 0.001]. The processed food pattern was not associated with these outcomes. The maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy represented by fried foods and sugar-sweetened beverages may contribute to rapid early childhood growth and increased risk for obesity in offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: childhood obesity; fast food; growth trajectory; maternal dietary pattern; pregnancy childhood obesity; fast food; growth trajectory; maternal dietary pattern; pregnancy
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Hu, Z.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Kocak, M.; Fowke, J.H.; Han, J.C.; Davis, R.L.; LeWinn, K.Z.; Bush, N.R.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Karr, C.J.; Zhao, Q. Effects of Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy on Early Childhood Growth Trajectories and Obesity Risk: The CANDLE Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 465.

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