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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Coffee Compounds

1
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Coimbra Chemistry Center, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga Largo D. Dinis, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
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Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal
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Chemistry Department, University of Coimbra, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rua Larga Largo D. Dinis, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
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ETH Zurich, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Schmelzbergstrasse 9, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020437
Received: 14 January 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 2 February 2020 / Published: 9 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nutrition and Health Based on Coffee, Tea, and Cocoa)
(1) Background: Cholesterol bioaccessibility is an indicator of cholesterol that is available for absorption and therefore can be a measure of hypocholesterolemic potential. In this work, the effect of commercial espresso coffee and coffee extracts on cholesterol solubility are studied in an in vitro model composed by glycodeoxycholic bile salt, as a measure of its bioaccessibility. (2) Methods: Polysaccharide extracts from coffees obtained with different extraction conditions were purified by selective precipitation with ethanol, and their sugars content were characterized by GC-FID. Hexane extraction allowed us to obtain the coffee lipids. Espresso coffee samples and extracts were tested regarding their concentration dependence on the solubility of labeled 13C-4 cholesterol by bile salt micelles, using quantitative 13C NMR. (3) Results and Discussion: Espresso coffee and coffee extracts were rich in polysaccharides, mainly arabinogalactans and galactomannans. These polysaccharides decrease cholesterol solubility and, simultaneously, the bile salts’ concentration. Coffee lipid extracts were also found to decrease cholesterol solubility, although not affecting bile salt concentration. (4) Conclusions: Coffee soluble fiber, composed by the arabinogalactans and galactomannans, showed to sequester bile salts from the solution, leading to a decrease in cholesterol bioaccessibility. Coffee lipids also decrease cholesterol bioaccessibility, although the mechanism of action identified is the co-solubilization in the bile salt micelles. The effect of both polysaccharides and lipids showed to be additive, representing the overall effect observed in a typical espresso coffee. The effect of polysaccharides and lipids on cholesterol bioaccessibility should be accounted on the formulation of hypocholesterolemic food ingredients. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; polysaccharides; hypocholesterolemic effect; sequestration; bioaccessibility; NMR; lipid; bile salts; cholesterol coffee; polysaccharides; hypocholesterolemic effect; sequestration; bioaccessibility; NMR; lipid; bile salts; cholesterol
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Coreta-Gomes, F.M.; Lopes, G.R.; Passos, C.P.; Vaz, I.M.; Machado, F.; Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Moreno, M.J.; Nyström, L.; Coimbra, M.A. In Vitro Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Coffee Compounds. Nutrients 2020, 12, 437.

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