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Open AccessArticle

Appetite Control across the Lifecourse: The Acute Impact of Breakfast Drink Quantity and Protein Content. The Full4Health Project

1
Centre for Health Science, Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of the Highlands and Islands, Old Perth Road, Inverness IV2 3JH, UK
2
The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
3
Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
4
Department of Nutrition-Dietetics, School of Health Science & Education, Harokopio University Athens, 70 El. Venizelou Avenue, 17671 Kallithea, Greece
5
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Physical Education, Sport Science and Dietetics, University of Thessaly, 42100 Trikala, Greece
6
School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
7
Institute of Metabolic Science, Metabolic Research Laboratories, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Box 289, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
8
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
9
Nutritional Biology, Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123710
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 25 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite and Satiety Control-Gut Mechanisms)
Understanding the mechanisms of hunger, satiety and how nutrients affect appetite control is important for successful weight management across the lifecourse. The primary aim of this study was to describe acute appetite control across the lifecourse, comparing age groups (children, adolescents, adults, elderly), weight categories, genders and European sites (Scotland and Greece). Participants (n = 391) consumed four test drinks, varying in composition (15% (normal protein, NP) and 30% (high protein, HP) of energy from protein) and quantity (based on 100% basal metabolic rate (BMR) and 140% BMR), on four separate days in a double-blind randomized controlled study. Ad libitum energy intake (EI), subjective appetite and biomarkers of appetite and metabolism (adults and elderly only) were measured. The adults’ appetite was significantly greater than that of the elderly across all drink types (p < 0.004) and in response to drink quantities (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in EI between age groups, weight categories, genders or sites. Concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were significantly greater in the elderly than the adults (p < 0.001). Ghrelin and fasting leptin concentrations differed significantly between weight categories, genders and sites (p < 0.05), while GLP-1 and PYY concentrations differed significantly between genders only (p < 0.05). Compared to NP drinks, HP drinks significantly increased postprandial GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.001). Advanced age was concomitant with reduced appetite and elevated anorectic hormone release, which may contribute to the development of malnutrition. In addition, appetite hormone concentrations differed between weight categories, genders and geographical locations. View Full-Text
Keywords: appetite; lifecourse; gut hormones; hunger; protein appetite; lifecourse; gut hormones; hunger; protein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Crabtree, D.R.; Buosi, W.; Fyfe, C.L.; Horgan, G.W.; Manios, Y.; Androutsos, O.; Giannopoulou, A.; Finlayson, G.; Beaulieu, K.; Meek, C.L.; Holst, J.J.; Van Norren, K.; Mercer, J.G.; Johnstone, A.M.; on behalf of the Full4Health-Study Group. Appetite Control across the Lifecourse: The Acute Impact of Breakfast Drink Quantity and Protein Content. The Full4Health Project. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3710.

AMA Style

Crabtree DR, Buosi W, Fyfe CL, Horgan GW, Manios Y, Androutsos O, Giannopoulou A, Finlayson G, Beaulieu K, Meek CL, Holst JJ, Van Norren K, Mercer JG, Johnstone AM, on behalf of the Full4Health-Study Group. Appetite Control across the Lifecourse: The Acute Impact of Breakfast Drink Quantity and Protein Content. The Full4Health Project. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3710.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Crabtree, Daniel R.; Buosi, William; Fyfe, Claire L.; Horgan, Graham W.; Manios, Yannis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Giannopoulou, Angeliki; Finlayson, Graham; Beaulieu, Kristine; Meek, Claire L.; Holst, Jens J.; Van Norren, Klaske; Mercer, Julian G.; Johnstone, Alexandra M.; on behalf of the Full4Health-Study Group. 2020. "Appetite Control across the Lifecourse: The Acute Impact of Breakfast Drink Quantity and Protein Content. The Full4Health Project" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3710.

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