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Open AccessReview

Protein Requirements of Pre-Menopausal Female Athletes: Systematic Literature Review

1
Centre for Sport Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood 3125, Victoria, Australia
2
Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong 3216, Victoria, Australia
3
School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore 4558, Queensland, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113527
Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 11 November 2020 / Accepted: 13 November 2020 / Published: 16 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
This systematic literature review aimed to determine the protein requirements of pre-menopausal (e.g., 18–45 years) female athletes and identify if the menstrual cycle phase and/or hormonal contraceptive use influence protein requirements. Four databases were searched for original research containing pre-menopausal female athletes that ingested protein alongside exercise. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Criteria Checklist was used to determine study quality. Fourteen studies, which included 204 recreationally active or competitive females, met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review, and all were assessed as positive quality. The estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein intake of pre-menopausal recreational and/or competitive female athletes is similar for those undertaking aerobic endurance (1.28–1.63 g/kg/day), resistance (1.49 g/kg/day) and intermittent exercise (1.41 g/kg/day) of ~60–90 min duration. The optimal acute protein intake and influence of menstrual cycle phase or hormonal contraceptive use on protein requirements could not be determined. However, pre- and post-exercise protein intakes of 0.32–0.38 g/kg have demonstrated beneficial physiological responses in recreational and competitive female athletes completing resistance and intermittent exercise. The protein requirements outlined in this review can be used for planning and assessing protein intakes of recreational and competitive pre-menopausal female athletes. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; muscle protein; exercise; menstrual cycle; contraceptives amino acids; muscle protein; exercise; menstrual cycle; contraceptives
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mercer, D.; Convit, L.; Condo, D.; Carr, A.J.; Hamilton, D.L.; Slater, G.; Snipe, R.M.J. Protein Requirements of Pre-Menopausal Female Athletes: Systematic Literature Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3527. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113527

AMA Style

Mercer D, Convit L, Condo D, Carr AJ, Hamilton DL, Slater G, Snipe RMJ. Protein Requirements of Pre-Menopausal Female Athletes: Systematic Literature Review. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3527. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113527

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mercer, Drew; Convit, Lilia; Condo, Dominique; Carr, Amelia J.; Hamilton, D. L.; Slater, Gary; Snipe, Rhiannon M.J. 2020. "Protein Requirements of Pre-Menopausal Female Athletes: Systematic Literature Review" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3527. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113527

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