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Article

Variation in Infant Formula Macronutrient Ingredients Is Associated with Infant Anthropometrics

Department of Pediatrics, Allergy and Immunology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113465
Received: 14 October 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Infant Feeding)
Background: There is wide variation in the macronutrient ingredient base of infant formula. How variation in macronutrient ingredients may impact infant growth remains largely unknown. Methods: The 2015–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset was utilized, including infant anthropometrics and dietary intake. The protein, fat, and carbohydrate sources of formulas consumed were assembled and considered as potential predictors in multivariable models of infant Z-scores among infants < 6 months, 6–12 months and all infants combined (0–12 months). Results: The following relationships represent ingredient covariates within the final multivariable models of infant Z-scores. Consuming formula with palm oil was associated with higher weight-for-length Z-scores among infants < 6 months, but lower weight-for-age and weight-for-length Z-scores among infants 6–12 months. Consuming soy-protein formulas was associated with lower weight-for-length, head circumference-for-age and abdominal circumference-for-age Z-scores among infants < 6 months. Consuming sucrose-containing formula was associated with higher weight-for-length and abdominal circumference-for-age Z-score among infants 0–12 months. Conclusions: These data provide proof-of-concept that all formulas are not the same. Variation in macronutrient ingredients within the standard formula category is associated with differences in infant anthropometric outcomes. Long-term and mechanistic studies are warranted to pursue these findings; especially for palm oil, soy protein, and sucrose. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant formula; infant growth; infant nutrition; palm oil; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NHANES infant formula; infant growth; infant nutrition; palm oil; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NHANES
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MDPI and ACS Style

Young, B. Variation in Infant Formula Macronutrient Ingredients Is Associated with Infant Anthropometrics. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3465. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113465

AMA Style

Young B. Variation in Infant Formula Macronutrient Ingredients Is Associated with Infant Anthropometrics. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3465. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113465

Chicago/Turabian Style

Young, Bridget. 2020. "Variation in Infant Formula Macronutrient Ingredients Is Associated with Infant Anthropometrics" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3465. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113465

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