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Article

Micronutrient Status and Dietary Diversity of Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Pakistan

1
Lancashire Research Centre for Global Development, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, UK
2
Department of Pulmonology, Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
3
Institute of Basic Medical sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar 25100, Pakistan
4
School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire NG7 2RD, UK
5
Lancashire Clinical Trials Unit, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3407; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113407
Received: 1 October 2020 / Revised: 29 October 2020 / Accepted: 2 November 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
Consuming a diverse diet is essential to ensure an adequate intake of micronutrients. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary diversity of women of reproductive age (WRA) living in a marginalized community in rural Pakistan. Forty-seven WRA (35 ± 7 years old) who were not pregnant or lactating at enrollment, were recruited to participate in the study. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall interviews were conducted by the study nutritionist, and the data collected were used to create a minimum dietary diversity for women score (MDD-W) on five occasions during the monsoon and winter seasons (October to February). Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometry and biochemical markers of micronutrient status. Height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI), and mid-upper-arm circumference was measured. Plasma zinc, iron, and selenium concentrations were measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry, and iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and blood hemoglobin concentrations. The mean (±SD) food group diversity score was 4 ± 1 with between 26% and 41% of participants achieving an MDD-W of 5. BMI was 27.2 ± 5.5 kg/m2 with 28% obese, 34% overweight, and 6% underweight. The prevalence of zinc deficiency, based on plasma zinc concentration, was 29.8%; 17% of the participants had low plasma selenium levels; 8.5% were iron deficient; and 2% were suffering from iron deficiency anemia. The findings indicate that the women living in this community consume a diet that has a low diversity, consistent with a diet low in micronutrients, and that zinc deficiency is prevalent. Public health interventions aimed at increasing the dietary diversity of WRA are needed to improve the micronutrient intake, particularly of zinc, in this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc; iron; selenium; micronutrients; malnutrition; dietary diversity; Pakistan; women of reproductive age (WRA) zinc; iron; selenium; micronutrients; malnutrition; dietary diversity; Pakistan; women of reproductive age (WRA)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brazier, A.K.M.; Lowe, N.M.; Zaman, M.; Shahzad, B.; Ohly, H.; McArdle, H.J.; Ullah, U.; Broadley, M.R.; Bailey, E.H.; Young, S.D.; Tishkovskaya, S.; Khan, M.J. Micronutrient Status and Dietary Diversity of Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Pakistan. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3407. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113407

AMA Style

Brazier AKM, Lowe NM, Zaman M, Shahzad B, Ohly H, McArdle HJ, Ullah U, Broadley MR, Bailey EH, Young SD, Tishkovskaya S, Khan MJ. Micronutrient Status and Dietary Diversity of Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Pakistan. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3407. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113407

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brazier, Anna K.M.; Lowe, Nicola M.; Zaman, Mukhtiar; Shahzad, Babar; Ohly, Heather; McArdle, Harry J.; Ullah, Ubaid; Broadley, Martin R.; Bailey, Elizabeth H.; Young, Scott D.; Tishkovskaya, Svetlana; Khan, Muhammad J. 2020. "Micronutrient Status and Dietary Diversity of Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Pakistan" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3407. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113407

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