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Assessment of Dietary Sodium Intake Using the Scored Salt Questionnaire in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

1
Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2145, Australia
2
Department of Renal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Western Sydney Local Health District, Sydney 2145, Australia
3
School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia
4
St George Hospital, Sydney 2217, Australia
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The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2042, Australia
6
Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth 6009, Australia
7
Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
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Polycystic Kidney Disease Australia, Roseville 2069, Australia
9
North Shore Nephrology, Sydney 2065, Australia
10
Department of Renal Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney 2031, Australia
11
Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66103, USA
12
Department of Renal Medicine, Bathurst Hospital, Bathurst 2795, Australia
13
Australasian Kidney Trials Network, University of Queensland at Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane 4102, Australia
14
Translational Research Institute, Brisbane 4102, Australia
15
Department of Nephrology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane 4102, Australia
16
Department of Renal Medicine, Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong 2500, Australia
17
Gosford Nephrology, Gosford 2250, Australia
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Department of Renal Medicine, Liverpool Hospital, Southwestern Sydney Local Health District, Sydney 2170, Australia
19
Renal Research, Gosford 2250, Australia
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Department of Renal Medicine, Nepean Hospital, Sydney 2751, Australia
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Translational Polycystic Kidney Disease Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, NY 55902, USA
22
Department of Nephrology, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle 2305, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113376
Received: 4 October 2020 / Revised: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 2 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
The excess intake of dietary sodium is a key modifiable factor for reducing disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the scored salt questionnaire (SSQ; a frequency questionnaire of nine sodium-rich food types) is a valid instrument to identify high dietary salt intake in ADPKD. The performance of the SSQ was evaluated in adults with ADPKD with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 during the screening visit of the PREVENT-ADPKD trial. High dietary sodium intake (HSI) was defined by a mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion ≥ 100 mmol/day from two collections. The median 24-h urine sodium excretion was 132 mmol/day (IQR: 112–172 mmol/d) (n = 75; mean age: 44.6 ± 11.5 years old; 53% female), and HSI (86.7% of total) was associated with male gender and higher BMI and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). The SSQ score (73 ± 23; mean ± SD) was weakly correlated with log10 24-h urine sodium excretion (r = 0.29, p = 0.01). Receiving operating characteristic analysis showed that the optimal cut-off point in predicting HSI was an SSQ score of 74 (area under the curve 0.79; sensitivity 61.5%; specificity 90.0%; p < 0.01). The evaluation of the SSQ in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 (n = 46) improved the sensitivity (100%) and the specificity (100%). Consumers with an SSQ score ≥ 74 (n = 41) had higher relative percentage intake of processed meats/seafood and flavourings added to cooking (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the SSQ is a valid tool for identifying high dietary salt intake in ADPKD but its value proposition (over 24-h urinary sodium measurement) is that it may provide consumers and their healthcare providers with insight into the potential origin of sodium-rich food sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; diet; sodium; salt; progression; 24-h urine; food frequency questionnaire autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; diet; sodium; salt; progression; 24-h urine; food frequency questionnaire
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wong, A.T.Y.; Munt, A.; Allman-Farinelli, M.; Badve, S.V.; Boudville, N.; Coolican, H.; Chandra, A.N.; Coulshed, S.; Fernando, M.; Grantham, J.; Haloob, I.; Harris, D.C.H.; Hawley, C.M.; Holt, J.; Johnson, D.W.; Kumar, K.; Lee, V.W.; Lonergan, M.; Mai, J.; Rangan, A.; Roger, S.D.; Saravanabavan, S.; Sud, K.; Torres, V.E.; Vilayur, E.; Zhang, J.Q.J.; Rangan, G.K. Assessment of Dietary Sodium Intake Using the Scored Salt Questionnaire in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3376. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113376

AMA Style

Wong ATY, Munt A, Allman-Farinelli M, Badve SV, Boudville N, Coolican H, Chandra AN, Coulshed S, Fernando M, Grantham J, Haloob I, Harris DCH, Hawley CM, Holt J, Johnson DW, Kumar K, Lee VW, Lonergan M, Mai J, Rangan A, Roger SD, Saravanabavan S, Sud K, Torres VE, Vilayur E, Zhang JQJ, Rangan GK. Assessment of Dietary Sodium Intake Using the Scored Salt Questionnaire in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3376. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113376

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wong, Annette T.Y.; Munt, Alexandra; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Badve, Sunil V.; Boudville, Neil; Coolican, Helen; Chandra, Ashley N.; Coulshed, Susan; Fernando, Mangalee; Grantham, Jared; Haloob, Imad; Harris, David C.H.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Holt, Jane; Johnson, David W.; Kumar, Karthik; Lee, Vincent W.; Lonergan, Maureen; Mai, Jun; Rangan, Anna; Roger, Simon D.; Saravanabavan, Sayanthooran; Sud, Kamal; Torres, Vicente E.; Vilayur, Eswari; Zhang, Jennifer Q.J.; Rangan, Gopala K. 2020. "Assessment of Dietary Sodium Intake Using the Scored Salt Questionnaire in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3376. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113376

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