Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Dietary Sodium Intake Using the Scored Salt Questionnaire in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
Previous Article in Journal
The Predictive Role of Raw Bioelectrical Impedance Variables in Disordered Eating Attitudes in Female Ballet Dance Students
Open AccessReview

In Utero HIV Exposure and the Early Nutritional Environment Influence Infant Neurodevelopment: Findings from an Evidenced Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3375; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113375
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 2 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
The developing brain is especially vulnerable to infection and suboptimal nutrition during the pre- and early postnatal periods. Exposure to maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapies (ART) in utero and during breastfeeding can adversely influence infant (neuro) developmental trajectories. How early life nutrition may be optimised to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes for infants who are HIV-exposed has not been well characterised. We conducted an up-to-date evidence review and meta-analysis on the influence of HIV exposure in utero and during breastfeeding, and early life nutrition, on infant neurodevelopmental outcomes before age three. We report that exposure to maternal HIV infection may adversely influence expressive language development, in particular, and these effects may be detectable within the first three years of life. Further, while male infants may be especially vulnerable to HIV exposure, few studies overall reported sex-comparisons, and whether there are sex-dependent effects of HIV exposure on neurodevelopment remains a critical knowledge gap to fill. Lastly, early life nutrition interventions, including daily maternal multivitamin supplementation during the perinatal period, may improve neurodevelopmental outcomes for infants who are HIV-exposed. Our findings suggest that the early nutritional environment may be leveraged to improve early neurodevelopmental trajectories in infants who have been exposed to HIV in utero. A clear understanding of how this environment should be optimised is key for developing targeted nutrition interventions during critical developmental periods in order to mitigate adverse outcomes later in life and should be a priority of future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; neurodevelopment; nutrition; breastfeeding HIV; neurodevelopment; nutrition; breastfeeding
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

White, M.; Connor, K.L. In Utero HIV Exposure and the Early Nutritional Environment Influence Infant Neurodevelopment: Findings from an Evidenced Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3375. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113375

AMA Style

White M, Connor KL. In Utero HIV Exposure and the Early Nutritional Environment Influence Infant Neurodevelopment: Findings from an Evidenced Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3375. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113375

Chicago/Turabian Style

White, Marina; Connor, Kristin L. 2020. "In Utero HIV Exposure and the Early Nutritional Environment Influence Infant Neurodevelopment: Findings from an Evidenced Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3375. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113375

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop