Carbohydrates, Starch, Total Sugar, Fiber Intakes and Food Sources in Spanish Children Aged One to <10 Years—Results from the EsNuPI Study†
Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la Salud, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, Alcorcón, 28925 Madrid, Spain
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), c/General Álvarez de Castro 20, 1ªpta, 28010 Madrid, Spain
Iberoamerican Nutrition Foundation (FINUT), Av. del Conocimiento 12, 3ª pta, Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
Instituto de Nutrición Puleva, Camino de Purchil 66, 18004 Granada, Spain
Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago, IDIS, ISCIII, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15700 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CB12/03/30038), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus de Cartuja, University of Granada, s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
Pediatric Department, Calle Marquesado de Sta. Marta 1, University of Navarra Clinic, 28027 Madrid, Spain
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix,” Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Parque Tecnológico de la Salud, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, Armilla, 18100 Granada, Spain
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, University of Granada, Campus de Cartuja, s.n, 18071 Granada, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Estudio Nutricional en Población Infantil Española (EsNuPI—Nutritional Study in Spanish Pediatric Population).
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103171
Received: 27 August 2020 / Revised: 29 September 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Diet and Lifestyles in the Pediatric Population)
Diet quality is a modifiable factor that may contribute to the onset of diet-related chronic diseases. Currently, in Spain there are no studies that examine the intakes and sources for total carbohydrates, starch, total sugar, and fiber by both children consuming all kind of milks and children regularly consuming adapted milk formulas. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of different food groups to total carbohydrates, starch, total sugar, and fiber consumption within the EsNuPI study participants by assessing their usual intakes by applying two 24 h dietary recalls that were completed by 1448 children (1 to <10 years) divided into two cohorts: one Spanish Reference Cohort (SRS) of the general population (n = 707) and another cohort which included children consuming adapted milks including follow-on milk, toddler’s or growing up milk, fortified and enriched milks, here called Adapted Milk Consumers Cohort” (AMS) (n = 741). Estimation of the usual intake showed that nutrient intake increased with age for all nutrients except for fiber. The percentage of children by age and gender who met the reference intake (RI) range for total carbohydrates, was in all groups more than 50% of individuals, except for girls aged 6 to <10 years from the reference cohort in which only 46.9% complied the RI. Median fiber intake, both in the SRS and the AMS, was well below the adequate intake (AI) for children between 3 and 10 years. Main total carbohydrates sources were cereals, followed by milk and dairy products, fruits, bakery and pastry, vegetables and sugars and sweets. The highest contributors to starch intakes were cereals, bakery and pastry, vegetables, and fruits. Major sources of total sugar intakes were milk and dairy products, fruits, bakery and pastry, sugars and sweets, vegetables, and cereals. Nonetheless, milk and dairy products, and fruits, mainly provided lactose and fructose, respectively, which are not considered free sugars. Higher contribution to fiber intakes was provided by fruits, cereals, vegetables and bakery and pastry. There were no significant differences in relation with the total sugar intake according to the body mass index (BMI) between SRS and AMS. The present study suggests a high proportion of children had total carbohydrates intakes in line with recommendations by public health authorities, but still a significant number presented insufficient total carbohydrate and fiber intakes, while total sugar consumption was high, with no major differences between SRS and AMS cohorts.