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Open AccessArticle

Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Cow, Donkey and Goat Milk Extracellular Vesicles as Revealed by Metabolomic Profile

1
Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
2
Centro di Ricerca sul Cavallo Sportivo, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Ecologiche e Biologiche, Università della Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
4
Dipartimento per l’Innovazione Nei Sistemi Biologici, Agroalimentari e Forestali, Università della Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
5
Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie C. Darwin, Università di Roma la Sapienza, 00185 Roma, Italy
6
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Umbria e delle Marche, 06126 Perugia, Italy
7
Institute of Biomembranes, Bioenergetics and Molecular Biotechnologies, IBIOM, CNR, 70126 Bari, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2908; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102908
Received: 12 August 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 17 September 2020 / Published: 23 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics in Nutrition and Human Health)
In recent years, extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell-derived micro and nano-sized structures enclosed in a double-layer membrane, have been in the spotlight for their high potential in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Indeed, they act as signal mediators between cells and/or tissues through different mechanisms involving their complex cargo and exert a number of biological effects depending upon EVs subtype and cell source. Being produced by almost all cell types, they are found in every biological fluid including milk. Milk EVs (MEVs) can enter the intestinal cells by endocytosis and protect their labile cargos against harsh conditions in the intestinal tract. In this study, we performed a metabolomic analysis of MEVs, from three different species (i.e., bovine, goat and donkey) by mass spectroscopy (MS) coupled with Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Metabolites, both common or specific of a species, were identified and enriched metabolic pathways were investigated, with the final aim to evaluate their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties in view of prospective applications as a nutraceutical in inflammatory conditions. In particular, metabolites transported by MEVs are involved in common pathways among the three species. These metabolites, such as arginine, asparagine, glutathione and lysine, show immunomodulating effects. Moreover, MEVs in goat milk showed a greater number of enriched metabolic pathways as compared to the other kinds of milk. View Full-Text
Keywords: Milk Extracellular Vesicles (MEVs), metabolomics; immunomodulation; inflammation; mass spectroscopy Milk Extracellular Vesicles (MEVs), metabolomics; immunomodulation; inflammation; mass spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mecocci, S.; Gevi, F.; Pietrucci, D.; Cavinato, L.; Luly, F.R.; Pascucci, L.; Petrini, S.; Ascenzioni, F.; Zolla, L.; Chillemi, G.; Cappelli, K. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Cow, Donkey and Goat Milk Extracellular Vesicles as Revealed by Metabolomic Profile. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2908. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102908

AMA Style

Mecocci S, Gevi F, Pietrucci D, Cavinato L, Luly FR, Pascucci L, Petrini S, Ascenzioni F, Zolla L, Chillemi G, Cappelli K. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Cow, Donkey and Goat Milk Extracellular Vesicles as Revealed by Metabolomic Profile. Nutrients. 2020; 12(10):2908. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102908

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mecocci, Samanta; Gevi, Federica; Pietrucci, Daniele; Cavinato, Luca; Luly, Francesco R.; Pascucci, Luisa; Petrini, Stefano; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Zolla, Lello; Chillemi, Giovanni; Cappelli, Katia. 2020. "Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Cow, Donkey and Goat Milk Extracellular Vesicles as Revealed by Metabolomic Profile" Nutrients 12, no. 10: 2908. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102908

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