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The Gut Microbiota Affects Host Pathophysiology as an Endocrine Organ: A Focus on Cardiovascular Disease

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010079
Received: 18 November 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Dyscrasia and Nutritional Regulation)
It is widely recognized that the microorganisms inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract—the gut microbiota—deeply affect the pathophysiology of the host. Gut microbiota composition is mostly modulated by diet, and gut microorganisms communicate with the different organs and tissues of the human host by synthesizing hormones and regulating their release. Herein, we will provide an updated review on the most important classes of gut microbiota-derived hormones and their sensing by host receptors, critically discussing their impact on host physiology. Additionally, the debated interplay between microbial hormones and the development of cardiovascular disease will be thoroughly analysed and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; cardiovascular disease; atherosclerosis; SCFA; bile acids; neurohormones; hormones; metabolism gut microbiota; cardiovascular disease; atherosclerosis; SCFA; bile acids; neurohormones; hormones; metabolism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Busnelli, M.; Manzini, S.; Chiesa, G. The Gut Microbiota Affects Host Pathophysiology as an Endocrine Organ: A Focus on Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients 2020, 12, 79.

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