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Biomarkers of a Healthy Nordic Diet—From Dietary Exposure Biomarkers to Microbiota Signatures in the Metabolome

1
Division of Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
2
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010027
Received: 3 November 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 December 2019 / Published: 20 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of the Nordic Diet)
Whole diets and dietary patterns are increasingly highlighted in modern nutrition and health research instead of single food items or nutrients alone. The Healthy Nordic Diet is a dietary pattern typically associated with beneficial health outcomes in observational studies, but results from randomized controlled trials are mixed. Dietary assessment is one of the greatest challenges in observational studies and compliance is a major challenge in dietary interventions. During the last decade, research has shown the great importance of the gut microbiota in health and disease. Studies have have both shown that the Nordic diet affects the gut microbiota and that the gut microbiota predicts the effects of such a diet. Rapid technique developments in the area of high-throughput mass spectrometry have enabled the large-scale use of metabolomics both as an objective measurement of dietary intake as well as in providing the final readout of the endogenous metabolic processes and the impact of the gut microbiota. In this review, we give an update on the current status on biomarkers that reflect a Healthy Nordic Diet or individual components thereof (food intake biomarkers), biomarkers that show the effects of a Healthy Nordic Diet and biomarkers reflecting the role of a Healthy Nordic Diet on the gut microbiota as well as how the gut microbiota or derived molecules may be used to predict the effects of a Healthy Nordic Diet on different outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Nordic diet; biomarkers; metabolomics; personalized nutrition; microbiota Nordic diet; biomarkers; metabolomics; personalized nutrition; microbiota
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Landberg, R.; Hanhineva, K. Biomarkers of a Healthy Nordic Diet—From Dietary Exposure Biomarkers to Microbiota Signatures in the Metabolome. Nutrients 2020, 12, 27.

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