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Open AccessArticle

Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Linné) Improves Obesity by Regulating Adipogenesis and Thermogenesis through AMPK Activation

by 1,2,†, 1,†, 1,2, 1,2, 3,* and 1,2,*
1
College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
2
Basic Research Laboratory for Comorbidity Regulation, Comorbidity Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
3
Life Science Major, Division of Bio-Convergence, College of Convergence and Integrate Science, Kyonggi University, Suwon 16227, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091988
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 18 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible Fruits and Human Health)
Obesity is a global health threat. Herein, we evaluated the underlying mechanism of anti-obese features of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium Linné, CA). Eight-week-administration of CA in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant decrease of body weight, adipose tissue weight and serum cholesterol. In further in vitro studies, we observed decreased lipid droplets in CA-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha indicated CA-inhibited adipogenesis. Moreover, CA-treated primary cultured brown adipocytes displayed increased differentiation associated with elevation of thermogenic factors including uncoupling protein 1 and PPARγ coactivator 1 alpha as well. The effects of CA in both adipocytes were abolished in AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα)-suppressed environments, suggesting the anti-adipogenic and pro-thermogenic actions of CA were dependent on AMPKα pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest CA as a potential anti-obese agent which regulates adipogenesis and thermogenesis via AMPKα. View Full-Text
Keywords: bitter orange; obesity; adipogenesis; thermogenesis; AMP-activated protein kinase bitter orange; obesity; adipogenesis; thermogenesis; AMP-activated protein kinase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, J.; Kim, H.-L.; Jung, Y.; Ahn, K.S.; Kwak, H.J.; Um, J.-Y. Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Linné) Improves Obesity by Regulating Adipogenesis and Thermogenesis through AMPK Activation. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1988. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091988

AMA Style

Park J, Kim H-L, Jung Y, Ahn KS, Kwak HJ, Um J-Y. Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Linné) Improves Obesity by Regulating Adipogenesis and Thermogenesis through AMPK Activation. Nutrients. 2019; 11(9):1988. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091988

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jung, Yunu; Ahn, Kwang S.; Kwak, Hyun J.; Um, Jae-Young. 2019. "Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium Linné) Improves Obesity by Regulating Adipogenesis and Thermogenesis through AMPK Activation" Nutrients 11, no. 9: 1988. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11091988

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