Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with growing prevalence as the global population ages. Currently available treatments for AD have minimal efficacy and there are no proven treatments for its prodrome, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). AD etiology is not well understood and various hypotheses of disease pathogenesis are currently under investigation. A consistent hallmark in patients with AD is reduced brain glucose utilization; however, evidence suggests that brain ketone metabolism remains unimpaired, thus, there is a great deal of increased interest in the potential value of ketone-inducing therapies for the treatment of AD (neuroketotherapeutics; NKT). The goal of this review was to discuss dietary NKT approaches and mechanisms by which they exert a possible therapeutic benefit, update the evidence available on NKTs in AD and consider a potential role of diet quality in the clinical use of dietary NKTs. Whether NKTs affect AD symptoms through the restoration of bioenergetics, the direct and indirect modulation of antioxidant and inflammation pathways, or both, preliminary positive evidence suggests that further study of dietary NKTs as a disease-modifying treatment in AD is warranted.
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