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Article

Long-Term Effects of a Classic Ketogenic Diet on Ghrelin and Leptin Concentration: A 12-Month Prospective Study in a Cohort of Italian Children and Adults with GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome and Drug Resistant Epilepsy

1
International Center for the Assessment of Nutritional Status (ICANS), Department of Food Environmental and Nutritional Sciences (DeFENS), University of Milan, Via Sandro Botticelli 21, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
Human Nutrition and Eating Disorder Research Center, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 21, 27100 Pavia, Italy
3
Pediatric Neurology Unit, Vittore Buzzi Hospital, Via Lodovico Castelvetro 32, 20154 Milan, Italy
4
Biomedical and Clinical Sciences Department, Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, via G. B. Grassi 74, 20157 Milan, Italy
5
Department of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Member of ERN-Epicare.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1716; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081716
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ketogenic Dietary Therapies: Recent Findings and Future Perspectives)
The classical ketogenic diet (cKD) is an isocaloric, high fat, very low-carbohydrate diet that induces ketosis, strongly influencing leptin and ghrelin regulation. However, not enough is known about the impact of a long-term cKD. This study evaluated the effects of a 12-month cKD on ghrelin and leptin concentrations in children, adolescents and adults affected by the GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome or drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). We also investigated the relationship between the nutritional status, body composition and ghrelin and leptin variations. We carried out a longitudinal study on 30 patients: Twenty-five children and adolescents (15 females, 8 ± 4 years), and five adults (two females, 34 ± 16 years). After 12-monoths cKD, there were no significant changes in ghrelin and leptin, or in the nutritional status, body fat, glucose and lipid profiles. However, a slight height z-score reduction (from −0.603 ± 1.178 to −0.953 ± 1.354, p ≤ 0.001) and a drop in fasting insulin occurred. We found no correlations between ghrelin changes and nutritional status and body composition, whereas leptin changes correlated positively with variations in the weight z-score and body fat (ρ = 0.4534, p = 0.0341; ρ = 0.5901, p = 0.0135; respectively). These results suggest that a long-term cKD does not change ghrelin and leptin concentrations independently of age and neurological condition. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug-resistant epilepsy; GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome; ketogenic diet; leptin; ghrelin drug-resistant epilepsy; GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome; ketogenic diet; leptin; ghrelin
MDPI and ACS Style

De Amicis, R.; Leone, A.; Lessa, C.; Foppiani, A.; Ravella, S.; Ravasenghi, S.; Trentani, C.; Ferraris, C.; Veggiotti, P.; De Giorgis, V.; Tagliabue, A.; Battezzati, A.; Bertoli, S. Long-Term Effects of a Classic Ketogenic Diet on Ghrelin and Leptin Concentration: A 12-Month Prospective Study in a Cohort of Italian Children and Adults with GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome and Drug Resistant Epilepsy. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1716. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081716

AMA Style

De Amicis R, Leone A, Lessa C, Foppiani A, Ravella S, Ravasenghi S, Trentani C, Ferraris C, Veggiotti P, De Giorgis V, Tagliabue A, Battezzati A, Bertoli S. Long-Term Effects of a Classic Ketogenic Diet on Ghrelin and Leptin Concentration: A 12-Month Prospective Study in a Cohort of Italian Children and Adults with GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome and Drug Resistant Epilepsy. Nutrients. 2019; 11(8):1716. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081716

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Amicis, Ramona, Alessandro Leone, Chiara Lessa, Andrea Foppiani, Simone Ravella, Stefano Ravasenghi, Claudia Trentani, Cinzia Ferraris, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Valentina De Giorgis, Anna Tagliabue, Alberto Battezzati, and Simona Bertoli. 2019. "Long-Term Effects of a Classic Ketogenic Diet on Ghrelin and Leptin Concentration: A 12-Month Prospective Study in a Cohort of Italian Children and Adults with GLUT1-Deficiency Syndrome and Drug Resistant Epilepsy" Nutrients 11, no. 8: 1716. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081716

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