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Open AccessArticle

Effect of a Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Circulating Myokine Levels Compared with the Effect of Bariatric Surgery or a Low-Calorie Diet in Patients with Obesity

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS/SERGAS), Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Santiago (IDIS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Medical Department Pronokal, Protein Supplies SL, 08009 Barcelona, Spain
3
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Santander (UDES), Bucaramanga 680003, Colombia
4
Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, Centre for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra (UNAV) and IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
5
CIBER de Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III; 28029 Madrid, Spain
6
Division of General Surgery, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS/SERGAS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
7
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Nutrition and Obesity Group, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and Lucio Lascaray Research Institute, 01005 Vitoria, Spain
8
Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Complejo Hospitalario de Málaga (Virgen de la Victoria), Universidad de Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
9
Program for Precision Nutrition, IMDEA, 28049 Madrid, Spain
10
Laboratory of Epigenomics in Endocrinology and Nutrition, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS/SERGAS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors.
Both authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-main authors.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102368
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 3 September 2019 / Accepted: 24 September 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ketogenic Dietary Therapies: Recent Findings and Future Perspectives)
The preservation of muscle mass and muscle function after weight loss therapy is currently a considerable challenge in the fight against obesity. Muscle mass secretes proteins called myokines that have relevant functions in the regulation of metabolism and health. This study was aimed to evaluate whether a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet may modulate myokine levels, in addition to changes in body composition, compared to a standard, balanced low-calorie (LC) diet or bariatric surgery in patients with obesity. Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and myokines were evaluated in 79 patients with overweight/obesity after a therapy to lose weight with a VLCK diet, a LC diet or bariatric surgery. The follow-up was 6 months. The weight loss therapies induced changes in myokine levels in association with changes in body composition and biochemical parameters. The effects on circulating myokine levels compared to those at baseline were stronger after the VLCK diet than LC diet or bariatric surgery. Differences reached statistical significance for IL-8, MMP2 and irisin. In conclusion, nutritional interventions or bariatric surgery to lose weight induces changes in circulating myokine levels, being this effect potentially most notable after following a VLCK diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: bariatric surgery; body composition; fat free mass; ketogenic diet; obesity; PnK method; protein diet; low-calorie diet; very low-energy diet bariatric surgery; body composition; fat free mass; ketogenic diet; obesity; PnK method; protein diet; low-calorie diet; very low-energy diet
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Sajoux, I.; Lorenzo, P.M.; Gomez-Arbelaez, D.; Zulet, M.A.; Abete, I.; Castro, A.I.; Baltar, J.; Portillo, M.P.; Tinahones, F.J.; Martinez, J.A.; Crujeiras, A.B.; Casanueva, F.F. Effect of a Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Circulating Myokine Levels Compared with the Effect of Bariatric Surgery or a Low-Calorie Diet in Patients with Obesity. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2368.

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