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Suppression of Food Allergic Symptoms by Raw Cow’s Milk in Mice is Retained after Skimming but Abolished after Heating the Milk—A Promising Contribution of Alkaline Phosphatase

1
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Danone Nutricia Research, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071499
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cow's Milk and Allergy)
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Abstract

Raw cow’s milk was previously shown to suppress allergic symptoms in a murine model for food allergy. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of fat content and heat-sensitive milk components to this allergy-protective effect. In addition, we determined the potency of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a heat-sensitive raw milk component, to affect the allergic response. C3H/HeOuJ mice were treated with raw milk, pasteurized milk, skimmed raw milk, pasteurized milk spiked with ALP, or phosphate-buffered saline for eight days prior to sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). Effects of these milk types on the allergic response were subsequently assessed. Similar to raw milk, skimmed raw milk suppressed food allergic symptoms, demonstrated by a reduced acute allergic skin response and low levels of OVA-specific IgE and Th2-related cytokines. This protective effect was accompanied by an induction of CD103+CD11b+ dendritic cells and TGF-β-producing regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Pasteurized milk was not protective but adding ALP restored the allergy-protective effect. Not the fat content, but the heat-sensitive components are responsible for the allergy-protective effects of raw cow’s milk. Adding ALP to heat-treated milk might be an interesting alternative to raw cow’s milk consumption, as spiking pasteurized milk with ALP restored the protective effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkaline phosphatase; allergic diseases; food allergy; immune regulation; milk processing; raw cow’s milk alkaline phosphatase; allergic diseases; food allergy; immune regulation; milk processing; raw cow’s milk
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Abbring, S.; Ryan, J.T.; Diks, M.A.; Hols, G.; Garssen, J.; van Esch, B.C. Suppression of Food Allergic Symptoms by Raw Cow’s Milk in Mice is Retained after Skimming but Abolished after Heating the Milk—A Promising Contribution of Alkaline Phosphatase. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1499.

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