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Total and Subtypes of Dietary Fat Intake and Its Association with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

1
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
2
Research Group on Community Nutrition & Oxidative Stress, University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
3
Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
4
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, IdISNA, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
5
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
6
Human Nutrition Unit, Biochemistry and Biotechnology Department, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain
7
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, 46100 Valencia, Spain
8
Unit of Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Institut Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
9
Miguel Hernández University, ISABIAL-FISABIO, 46020 Alicante, Spain
10
CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
11
Department of Cardiology, OSI ARABA, University Hospital Araba, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 01009 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
12
Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, University of Málaga-IBIMA, 29071 Málaga, Spain
13
Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences, and Physiology, Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
14
Cardiometabolics Nutrition Group, IMDEA Food, CEI UAM + CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
15
Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
16
Department of Internal Medicine, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
17
Virgen de la Victoria Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, University of Málaga, 29010 Málaga, Spain
18
Department of Family Medicine, Research Unit, Distrito Sanitario Atención Primaria Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
19
Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
20
Lipids and Atherosclerosis Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Reina Sofia University Hospital, University of Cordoba, 14004 Cordoba, Spain
21
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
22
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
23
Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC), 28040 Madrid, Spain
24
Nutritional Genomics and Epigenomics Group, IMDEA Food, CEI UAM + CSIC, 28049 Madrid, Spain
25
CIBER Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
26
Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, 24071 León, Spain
27
Department of Endocrinology, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
28
Department of Endocrinology, Fundación Jiménez-Díaz, 28040 Madrid, Spain
29
Lipid Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
30
Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Arroyo de la Miel. Distrito de Atención Primaria Costa del Sol, Servicio Andaluz de Salud, 29630 Benalmádena, Spain
31
Department of Computer Languages and Systems. Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellon, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071493
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Syndromes)
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PDF [756 KB, uploaded 20 August 2019]
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Abstract

Background: The effect of dietary fat intake on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in turn on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear in individuals at high CVD risk. Objective: To assess the association between fat intake and MetS components in an adult Mediterranean population at high CVD risk. Design: Baseline assessment of nutritional adequacy in participants (n = 6560, men and women, 55–75 years old, with overweight/obesity and MetS) in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial. Methods: Assessment of fat intake (total fat, monounsatured fatty acids: MUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids: PUFA, saturated fatty acids: SFA, trans-fatty acids: trans-FA, linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and ω-3 FA) using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and diet quality using 17-item Mediterranean dietary questionnaire and fat quality index (FQI). Results: Participants in the highest quintile of total dietary fat intake showed lower intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein and fiber, but higher intake of PUFA, MUFA, SFA, TFA, LA, ALA and ω-3 FA. Differences in MetS components were found according to fat intake. Odds (5th vs. 1st quintile): hyperglycemia: 1.3–1.6 times higher for total fat, MUFA, SFA and ω-3 FA intake; low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c): 1.2 higher for LA; hypertriglyceridemia: 0.7 lower for SFA and ω-3 FA intake. Conclusions: Dietary fats played different role on MetS components of high CVD risk patients. Dietary fat intake was associated with higher risk of hyperglycemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acids; dietary fat; fat intake; Mediterranean diet; cardiovascular disease risk fatty acids; dietary fat; fat intake; Mediterranean diet; cardiovascular disease risk
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Julibert, A.; Bibiloni, M.M.; Bouzas, C.; Martínez-González, M.Á.; Salas-Salvadó, J.; Corella, D.; Zomeño, M.D.; Romaguera, D.; Vioque, J.; Alonso-Gómez, Á.M.; Wärnberg, J.; Martínez, J.A.; Serra-Majem, L.; Estruch, R.; Tinahones, F.J.; Lapetra, J.; Pintó, X.; Lopez-Miranda, J.; García-Molina, L.; Gaforio, J.J.; Matía-Martín, P.; Daimiel, L.; Martín-Sánchez, V.; Vidal, J.; Vázquez, C.; Ros, E.; Toledo, E.; Becerra-Tomás, N.; Pórtoles, O.; Pérez-Vega, K.A.; Fiol, M.; Torres-Collado, L.; Tojal-Sierra, L.; Carabaño-Moral, R.; Abete, I.; Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Casas, R.; Bernal-López, M.R.; Santos-Lozano, J.M.; Galera, A.; Ugarriza, L.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Babio, N.; Coltell, O.; Schröder, H.; Konieczna, J.; Orozco-Beltrán, D.; Sorto-Sánchez, C.; Eguaras, S.; Barrubés, L.; Fitó, M.; Tur, J.A.; Investigators, P.-P. Total and Subtypes of Dietary Fat Intake and Its Association with Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1493.

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