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Open AccessArticle

Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides with Sialyllactose Improves Cognition in Preterm Pigs

1
Comparative Pediatrics and Nutrition, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark
2
Department of Clinical Medicine, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
3
Department of Clinical Medicine, The MR Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8200 Aarhus, Denmark
4
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, The Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
5
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
6
Laboratory of Neural Plasticity, Department of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen, 2200 København, Denmark
7
School of Animal & Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga 2678, Australia
8
Arla Foods Ingredients, 8260 Viby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061335
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
Optimal nutrition is important after preterm birth to facilitate normal brain development. Human milk is rich in sialic acid and preterm infants may benefit from supplementing formula with sialyllactose to support neurodevelopment. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that sialyllactose supplementation improves brain development after preterm birth. Pigs (of either sex) were delivered by cesarean section at 90% gestation and fed a milk diet supplemented with either an oligosaccharide-enriched whey with sialyllactose (n = 20) or lactose (n = 20) for 19 days. Cognitive performance was tested in a spatial T-maze. Brains were collected for ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gene expression, and sialic acid measurements. For reference, term piglets (n = 14) were artificially reared under identical conditions and compared with vaginally born piglets naturally reared by the sow (n = 12). A higher proportion of sialyllactose supplemented preterm pigs reached the T-maze learning criteria relative to control preterm pigs (p < 0.05), and approximated the cognition level of term reference pigs (p < 0.01). Furthermore, supplemented pigs had upregulated genes related to sialic acid metabolism, myelination, and ganglioside biosynthesis in hippocampus. Sialyllactose supplementation did not lead to higher levels of sialic acid in the hippocampus or change MRI endpoints. Contrary, these parameters were strongly influenced by postconceptional age and postnatal rearing conditions. In conclusion, oligosaccharide-enriched whey with sialyllactose improved spatial cognition, with effects on hippocampal genes related to sialic acid metabolism, myelination, and ganglioside biosynthesis in preterm pigs. Dietary sialic acid enrichment may improve brain development in infants. View Full-Text
Keywords: sialic acid; cognition; brain; preterm birth; milk sialic acid; cognition; brain; preterm birth; milk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Obelitz-Ryom, K.; Bering, S.B.; Overgaard, S.H.; Eskildsen, S.F.; Ringgaard, S.; Olesen, J.L.; Skovgaard, K.; Pankratova, S.; Wang, B.; Brunse, A.; Heckmann, A.B.; Rydal, M.P.; Sangild, P.T.; Thymann, T. Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides with Sialyllactose Improves Cognition in Preterm Pigs. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1335. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061335

AMA Style

Obelitz-Ryom K, Bering SB, Overgaard SH, Eskildsen SF, Ringgaard S, Olesen JL, Skovgaard K, Pankratova S, Wang B, Brunse A, Heckmann AB, Rydal MP, Sangild PT, Thymann T. Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides with Sialyllactose Improves Cognition in Preterm Pigs. Nutrients. 2019; 11(6):1335. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061335

Chicago/Turabian Style

Obelitz-Ryom, Karina; Bering, Stine B.; Overgaard, Silja H.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Ringgaard, Steffen; Olesen, Jonas L.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Pankratova, Stanislava; Wang, Bing; Brunse, Anders; Heckmann, Anne B.; Rydal, Martin P.; Sangild, Per T.; Thymann, Thomas. 2019. "Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides with Sialyllactose Improves Cognition in Preterm Pigs" Nutrients 11, no. 6: 1335. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061335

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