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Gastrointestinal Sensing of Meal-Related Signals in Humans, and Dysregulations in Eating-Related Disorders

Adelaide Medical School and National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Centre of Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, Adelaide Health and Medical Sciences Building, Corner North Terrace and George Street, Adelaide 5005, Australia
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Those authors contributed equally to this article.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061298
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Diet for Gut Function and Dysfunction)
The upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in sensing the arrival of a meal, including its volume as well as nutrient and non-nutrient contents. The presence of the meal in the stomach generates a mechanical distension signal, and, as gastric emptying progresses, nutrients increasingly interact with receptors on enteroendocrine cells, triggering the release of gut hormones, with lipid and protein being particularly potent. Collectively, these signals are transmitted to the brain to regulate appetite and energy intake, or in a feedback loop relayed back to the upper GI tract to further adjust GI functions, including gastric emptying. The research in this area to date has provided important insights into how sensing of intraluminal meal-related stimuli acutely regulates appetite and energy intake in humans. However, disturbances in the detection of these stimuli have been described in a number of eating-related disorders. This paper will review the GI sensing of meal-related stimuli and the relationship with appetite and energy intake, and examine changes in GI responses to luminal stimuli in obesity, functional dyspepsia and anorexia of ageing, as examples of eating-related disorders. A much better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these dysregulations is still required to assist in the development of effective management and treatment strategies in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: gastrointestinal sensing; nutrients; gastric distension; impaired gastrointestinal function; obesity; functional dyspepsia; anorexia of ageing gastrointestinal sensing; nutrients; gastric distension; impaired gastrointestinal function; obesity; functional dyspepsia; anorexia of ageing
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Hajishafiee, M.; Bitarafan, V.; Feinle-Bisset, C. Gastrointestinal Sensing of Meal-Related Signals in Humans, and Dysregulations in Eating-Related Disorders. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1298.

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