Optimal bone health is important in children to reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Both body composition and vitamin D play an important role in bone health. This study aimed to describe bone health, body composition, and vitamin D status, and the relationship between these among a group of conveniently sampled black preadolescent South African children (n
= 84) using a cross-sectional study. Body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n
= 59) were assessed using dried blood spots. A quarter (25%) of children presented with low bone mass density for their chronological age (BMD Z-score < −2) and 7% with low BMC-for-age (BMC Z-score < −2), while only 34% of the children had sufficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL). Lean mass was the greatest body compositional determinant for variances observed in bone health measures. Body composition and bone health parameters were not significantly different across vitamin D status groups (p
> 0.05), except for lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (LS-BMAD) (p
< 0.01). No association was found between bone parameters at all sites and levels of 25(OH)D (p
> 0.05). Further research, using larger representative samples of South African children including all race groups is needed before any conclusions and subsequent recommendation among this population group can be made.
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