Next Article in Journal
Vegetable-Based Diets for Chronic Kidney Disease? It Is Time to Reconsider
Next Article in Special Issue
Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone, Vitamin D and Calcium Intake, and Bone Density in Healthy Adult Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the D-SOL Study
Previous Article in Journal
Chemopreventive Effects of Strawberry and Black Raspberry on Colorectal Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bone Health, Body Composition, and Vitamin D Status of Black Preadolescent Children in South Africa
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Nutrient Patterns and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Tennent Drive, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Food Nutrition & Health Team, AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
High-Value Nutrition National Science Challenge, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
School of Health Sciences, College of Health, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1262;
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
PDF [267 KB, uploaded 11 June 2019]


In women, the menopausal transition is characterized by acid-base imbalance, estrogen deficiency and rapid bone loss. Research into nutritional factors that influence bone health is therefore necessary. In this study, the relationship between nutrient patterns and nutrients important for bone health with bone mineral density (BMD) was explored. In this cross-sectional analysis, 101 participants aged between 54 and 81 years were eligible. Body composition and BMD analyses were performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were extracted from a 3-day diet diary (3-DDD) using Foodworks 9 and metabolic equivalent (MET-minutes) was calculated from a self-reported New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ). Significant positive correlations were found between intakes of calcium (p = 0.003, r = 0.294), protein (p = 0.013, r = 0.246), riboflavin (p = 0.020, r = 0.232), niacin equivalent (p = 0.010, r = 0.256) and spine BMD. A nutrient pattern high in riboflavin, phosphorus and calcium was significantly positively correlated with spine (p < 0.05, r = 0.197) and femoral neck BMD (p < 0.05, r = 0.213), while the nutrient pattern high in vitamin E, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and omega 6 fatty acids was negatively correlated with hip (p < 0.05, r = −0.215) and trochanter BMD (p < 0.05, r = −0.251). These findings support the hypothesis that a nutrient pattern high in the intake of vitamin E, α-tocopherol and omega 6 fatty acids appears to be detrimental for bone health in postmenopausal women. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrient pattern; dietary fat; dietary calcium; bone mineral density; osteoporosis nutrient pattern; dietary fat; dietary calcium; bone mineral density; osteoporosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ilesanmi-Oyelere, B.L.; Brough, L.; Coad, J.; Roy, N.; Kruger, M.C. The Relationship between Nutrient Patterns and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1262.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top