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Open AccessArticle

Effect of 1 Year Krill Oil Supplementation on Cognitive Achievement of Dutch Adolescents: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Welten Institute, Research Centre for Learning, Teaching, and Technology, Open University of the Netherlands, 6419 AT Heerlen, The Netherlands
2
Omegametrix, 82 152 Martinsried, Germany
3
Preventive Cardiology, Medical Clinic and Poli-Clinic I, Ludwig Maximilians-University Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
4
Aker BioMarine Antarctic AS, NO-1327 Lysaker, Norway
5
Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Open University of the Netherlands, 6419 AT Heerlen, The Netherlands
6
Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (School NUTRIM), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
7
Care and Public Health Research Institute (School CAPHRI), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
8
Section of Educational Neuroscience and LEARN! Research Institute, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
9
University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1230; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061230
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 26 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are important for brain development and function, maybe especially during adolescence. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between fish consumption (a source of LCPUFA) and cognition in adolescents, but intervention trials are lacking. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effect of one year of krill oil (a source of LCPUFA) supplementation on the cognitive performance of adolescents with a low Omega-3 Index (O3I ≤ 5%). A double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled supplementation trial with repeated measurements (baseline (T0), three months (T1), six months (T2), and 12 months (T3)) in adolescents (267 randomized) was executed. Participants were randomized to 400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day in Cohort I or placebo and 800 mg EPA + DHA per day in Cohort II or placebo. O3I was monitored by a finger prick at all time points. At T0, T2, and T3, participants executed a neurocognitive test battery. Covariate corrected mixed models were run with either condition (krill or placebo) or O3I as predictors. Krill oil supplementation led to a small but significant increase in mean O3I, but few participants increased to the intended O3I range (8–11%). There was no significant effect of supplementation on the neurocognitive tests, nor a relationship between O3I and neurocognitive test scores. The increase in O3I was small in most participants, probably due to non-compliance. Possibly the increase in O3I was too small to demonstrate an effect. More research on the influence of LCPUFAs on cognition in adolescents is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); adolescents; cognition; omega-3 fatty acids; omega-3 Index; krill oil; randomized controlled trial (RCT); fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); adolescents; cognition; omega-3 fatty acids; omega-3 Index; krill oil; randomized controlled trial (RCT); fatty acids
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van der Wurff, I.S.; von Schacky, C.; Bergeland, T.; Leontjevas, R.; Zeegers, M.P.; Jolles, J.; Kirschner, P.A.; de Groot, R.H. Effect of 1 Year Krill Oil Supplementation on Cognitive Achievement of Dutch Adolescents: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1230.

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