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Potential Biomarkers for Fat from Dairy and Fish and Their Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Cross-sectional Data from the LifeLines Biobank and Cohort Study

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
3
FrieslandCampina Amersfoort, Stationsplein 4, 3818 LE Amersfoort, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051099
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fat and Human Health)
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Abstract

Dairy fat intake, reflected by the biomarkers C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, trans-C16:1 (n-7), trans-C18:1 (n-7) and CLA, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. It has, however, been questioned whether this association is genuine, since C15:0 and C17:0 are also biomarkers from fish. We investigated whether the above biomarkers are reliable markers for dairy fat intake in 864 healthy subjects. Subsequently, we explored the association between these biomarkers and cardiovascular risk factors. Intakes of dairy and fish were determined by Food Frequency Questionnaires FFQs. Fatty acids were analyzed in plasma triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids (PL). Median intakes of dairy and fish fat were 12.3 (8.4–17.4) g/day and 1.14 (0.53–1.75) g/day. All fatty acids, except TG C17:0, were associated with dairy fat (std.β range TG: 0.12 for C14:0 till 0.25 for C15:0 and Trans-C18:1 (n-7); and std.β range PL: 0.12 for C17:0 and Trans-C16:1 (n-7) till 0.24 for Trans-C18:1 (n-7) and CLA; p < 0.001). TG C17:0 was associated with fish fat (std.β = 0.08; p = 0.03), whereas PL C17:0 was not. Associations remained after adjustment for fish/dairy fat intake. Strongest inverse associations with biological variables were found with PL C17:0 and Trans-C18:1 (n-7) (Std.βs: waist circumference: −0.18, p < 0.001 and −0.10, p < 0.05; BMI: −0.17, p < 0.001, −0.11, p < 0.01; glucose: −0.10, p <0.01 and −0.08, p <0.05; high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP): −0.22, p < 0.001 and −0.16, p < 0.01; uric acid: −0.27, p < 0.001 and −0.24, p < 0.001). In conclusion, fatty acid biomarkers, except plasma TG C17:0, were associated with dairy fat intake, independent of fish fat intake. PL C17:0 and trans-C18:1 (n-7) were inversely associated with adiposity, diabetes, inflammation and uric acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy; fish; fatty acids; biomarkers; cardiovascular diseases; cardiovascular risk Factors; cross-sectional dairy; fish; fatty acids; biomarkers; cardiovascular diseases; cardiovascular risk Factors; cross-sectional
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Pranger, I.G.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Kema, I.P.; Singh-Povel, C.; Bakker, S.J.L. Potential Biomarkers for Fat from Dairy and Fish and Their Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Cross-sectional Data from the LifeLines Biobank and Cohort Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1099.

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