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Implications of the Westernized Diet in the Onset and Progression of IBD

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna, Italy
3
Pediatric Unit, Maggiore Hospital, Largo Bartolo Nigrisoli, 2, 40133 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
F.R., E.S., M.C.V. and P.G. equally contributed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051033
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD))
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Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are currently considered multifactorial pathologies in which various combined environmental factors act on a genetic background, giving rise to a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Among the various environmental factors, it now seems clear that the diet plays the major role in IBD onset and progression. Several clinical studies have attempted to understand the impact of diet in the development and progression of these diseases in order to establish useful guidelines for their management. However, the modest and sometimes contradictory results did not lead to the definition of shared dietary suggestions. On the other hand, food fads and recommendations based on anecdotal episodes are often followed by IBD patients to improve their diet. This review provides a critical overview of existing data on the role of diet as a risk factor for IBD. The methodology used was that of analyzing the results of clinical studies conducted on diet and IBD over the last 12 years through PubMed, as well as analyzing the most relevant studies on nutrients and their possible roles in IBD through the knowledge of the mechanisms by which they can modulate the microbiota or the intestinal physiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD); Mediterranean Diet; Western-style Diet (WSD); Nutritional Approach Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD); Mediterranean Diet; Western-style Diet (WSD); Nutritional Approach
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Rizzello, F.; Spisni, E.; Giovanardi, E.; Imbesi, V.; Salice, M.; Alvisi, P.; Valerii, M.C.; Gionchetti, P. Implications of the Westernized Diet in the Onset and Progression of IBD. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1033.

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