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The Role of Vitamin D in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Mechanism to Management

1
Nutrition Nurses, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH 1, UK
2
Gastroenterology Department, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2WB 2, UK
3
NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
4
Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
5
Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1019; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051019
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD))
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Abstract

Vitamin D has been linked to human health benefits that extend far beyond its established actions on calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. One of the most well studied facets of extra-skeletal vitamin D is its activity as an immuno-modulator, in particular its potent anti-inflammatory effects. As a consequence, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Low serum levels of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) are significantly more prevalent in patients with IBD, particularly in the winter and spring months when UV-induced synthesis of vitamin D is lower. Dietary malabsorption of vitamin D may also contribute to low serum 25(OH)D in IBD. The benefits of supplementation with vitamin D for IBD patients are still unclear, and improved vitamin D status may help to prevent the onset of IBD as well as ameliorating disease severity. Beneficial effects of vitamin D in IBD are supported by pre-clinical studies, notably with mouse models, where the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) has been shown to regulate gastrointestinal microbiota function, and promote anti-inflammatory, tolerogenic immune responses. The current narrative review aims to summarise the different strands of data linking vitamin D and IBD, whilst also outlining the possible beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation in managing IBD in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; IBD; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; supplementation; deficiency vitamin D; IBD; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; supplementation; deficiency
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Fletcher, J.; Cooper, S.C.; Ghosh, S.; Hewison, M. The Role of Vitamin D in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Mechanism to Management. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1019.

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