Next Article in Journal
Lactobacillus fermentum PC1 has the Capacity to Attenuate Joint Inflammation in Collagen-Induced Arthritis in DBA/1 Mice
Previous Article in Journal
Protective Effect of Hesperidin on the Oxidative Stress Induced by an Exhausting Exercise in Intensively Trained Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Consumption Patterns of Grain-Based Foods among Children and Adolescents in Canada: Evidence from Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition 2015
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040784

Consumption Patterns of Grain-Based Foods among Adults in Canada: Evidence from Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition 2015

1
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatioon, Sasatchewan, Canada
2
Nutritional Strategies Inc, Paris, ON N3LOA3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
PDF [415 KB, uploaded 4 April 2019]

Abstract

In this study, we used the Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition (CCHS) 2015 data to examine the consumption patterns of grain-based foods (GBFs) for Canadian adults. We used a k-mean cluster analysis based on the contribution of 21 grain-based foods to total energy intake of adults in Canada to find the dietary patterns of GBFs. Cluster analyses rendered seven dietary patterns including: ‘other bread’, ‘cake and cookies’, ‘pasta’, ‘rice’, ‘mixed’, ‘white bread’, and finally ‘whole wheat and whole-grain bread’. ‘No grain’ and ‘rice’ consumers had lower intakes of dietary fibre, folate, iron and calcium, which are the nutrients of public health concern in Canada. Adults consuming a ‘mixed grain’ dietary pattern had a greater daily intake of calcium, potassium, magnesium, riboflavin, and vitamin B6 than those in the ‘no grain’ dietary pattern. We also observed that a considerable proportion of individuals clustered in the ‘rice’ group are immigrants and belong to households with lower income levels.
Keywords: grains; cluster analysis; consumption patterns; nutrients; socioeconomic status; fortification grains; cluster analysis; consumption patterns; nutrients; socioeconomic status; fortification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hosseini, S.H.; Papanikolaou, Y.; Islam, N.; Rashmi, P.; Shamloo, A.; Vatanparast, H. Consumption Patterns of Grain-Based Foods among Adults in Canada: Evidence from Canadian Community Health Survey—Nutrition 2015. Nutrients 2019, 11, 784.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top