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Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040773

Differing Water Intake and Hydration Status in Three European Countries—A Day-to-Day Analysis

1
Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, 50933 Cologne, Germany
2
German Research Centre of Elite Sports (momentum), German Sport University Cologne, 50933 Cologne, Germany
3
Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
4
Exercise Physiology Lab at Toledo, University of Castilla-la Mancha, 13071 Toledo, Spain
5
Centre for Preventive Doping Research, German Sport University Cologne, 50933 Cologne, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Health: Scientific Evidence and Recommendations)
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Abstract

Adequate hydration is essential for maintaining health and functionality of the human body. Studies assessing both daily water intake and hydration status are lacking. This study explored data from the European Hydration Research Study (EHRS) and focused on total water intake (TWI), 24 h hydration status, and day-to-day variations in a sample of 573 healthy adults. TWI was assessed by food records and hydration status (urine osmolality and urine volume) was measured from 24 urine samples collected over seven consecutive days. On all weekdays, mean TWI was higher (p < 0.001 for all days) for the German subjects compared to the Greek and Spanish participants. In 37% of the male and 22% of the female subjects, the individual mean TWI was below the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendation, with 16% men (4% women) being below the EFSA recommendation on every testing day. Twenty-four hour urine osmolality was lower in women compared to men (595 ± 261 vs. 681 ± 237 mOsmol/kg; p < 0.001). More men (40%) showed a urine osmolality ≥800 mOsmol/kg at least on four days of the study period compared to women (26%) and more participants from Spain (46%) compared to Greece (29%) and Germany (11%). A large number of individuals showed an inadequate hydration status on several days per week, which may have a negative health and cognitive impact on daily life. View Full-Text
Keywords: water; hydration status; total water intake; urine osmolality; urine volume water; hydration status; total water intake; urine osmolality; urine volume
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Braun, H.; von Andrian-Werburg, J.; Malisova, O.; Athanasatou, A.; Kapsokefalou, M.; Ortega, J.F.; Mora-Rodriguez, R.; Thevis, M. Differing Water Intake and Hydration Status in Three European Countries—A Day-to-Day Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 773.

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