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Open AccessReview

Effects of Drugs and Excipients on Hydration Status

1
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, 28668 Madrid, Spain
2
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), 28010 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contribute equally to this paper.
These authors share senior authorship.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030669
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydration and Health: Scientific Evidence and Recommendations)
Despite being the most essential nutrient, water is commonly forgotten in the fields of pharmacy and nutrition. Hydration status is determined by water balance (the difference between water input and output). Hypohydration or negative water balance is affected by numerous factors, either internal (i.e., a lack of thirst sensation) or external (e.g., polypharmacy or chronic consumption of certain drugs). However, to date, research on the interaction between hydration status and drugs/excipients has been scarce. Drugs may trigger the appearance of hypohydration by means of the increase of water elimination through either diarrhea, urine or sweat; a decrease in thirst sensation or appetite; or the alteration of central thermoregulation. On the other hand, pharmaceutical excipients induce alterations in hydration status by decreasing the gastrointestinal transit time or increasing the gastrointestinal tract rate or intestinal permeability. In the present review, we evaluate studies that focus on the effects of drugs/excipients on hydration status. These studies support the aim of monitoring the hydration status in patients, mainly in those population segments with a higher risk, to avoid complications and associated pathologies, which are key axes in both pharmaceutical care and the field of nutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: dehydration; hydration status; water balance; elderly; drug interactions; excipients; polypharmacy; chronic treatment; adverse effects; pharmaceutical care dehydration; hydration status; water balance; elderly; drug interactions; excipients; polypharmacy; chronic treatment; adverse effects; pharmaceutical care
MDPI and ACS Style

Puga, A.M.; Lopez-Oliva, S.; Trives, C.; Partearroyo, T.; Varela-Moreiras, G. Effects of Drugs and Excipients on Hydration Status. Nutrients 2019, 11, 669.

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