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Article

Muscle Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Gene Expression Are Altered by Diet-Induced Increase in Muscle Essential Fatty Acid (α-linolenic acid) Concentration in Sheep Used as a Model

1
Animal Production Sciences, Agriculture Victoria Research, Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions, Bundoora VIC 3083, Australia
2
Department of Animal Science, Moghan College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil 56971-94781, Iran
3
Pelican Biological, Wallington VIC 3222, Australia
4
Animal Production Sciences, Agriculture Victoria Research, Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions, Ellinbank VIC 3821, Australia
5
Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3010, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040723
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Atherosclerosis)
This study investigated the effect of dietary manipulations on muscle fatty acid composition, the activities and relative mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes and the relationship between muscle enzyme activity or mRNA expression and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) concentration in sheep. Eighty-four lambs blocked on liveweight were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments, lucerne pasture (Lucerne), annual ryegrass pasture (Ryegrass), feedlot pellets (Feedlot) or annual ryegrass plus feedlot pellets (RyeFeedlot). After six weeks of feeding, lambs were slaughtered and within 30 min post-mortem, samples collected from the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle for RNA isolation and measurement of antioxidant enzyme activities. At 24 h post-mortem, LL samples were collected for determination of fatty acid concentrations. Feedlot treatment decreased ALA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) concentrations compared with other treatments and increased linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) compared with Lucerne and Ryegrass (p < 0.001). The activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPX1, p < 0.001) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD2, p < 0.001) enzymes in the muscle increased with Lucerne compared to other treatments. Lucerne increased muscle gpx1 mRNA expression by 1.74-fold (p = 0.01) and 1.68-fold (p = 0.05) compared with Feedlot and other diets, respectively. The GPX1 (r2 = 0.319, p = 0.002) and SOD2 (r2 = 0.244, p = 0.009) enzyme activities were positively related to ALA. There was a positive linear relationship between muscle gpx1 (r2 = 0.102, p = 0.017) or sod2 (r2 = 0.049, p = 0.09) mRNA expressions and ALA concentration. This study demonstrates that diet can affect concentrations of ALA and other fatty acids as well as change activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in muscle. Increased antioxidant activity may, in turn, have beneficial effects on the performance, health and wellbeing of animals and humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary intervention; omega-3 fatty acid; linolenic acid; antioxidant enzyme activity; gene expression; performance; health and wellbeing; sheep dietary intervention; omega-3 fatty acid; linolenic acid; antioxidant enzyme activity; gene expression; performance; health and wellbeing; sheep
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ponnampalam, E.N.; Vahedi, V.; Giri, K.; Lewandowski, P.; Jacobs, J.L.; Dunshea, F.R. Muscle Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Gene Expression Are Altered by Diet-Induced Increase in Muscle Essential Fatty Acid (α-linolenic acid) Concentration in Sheep Used as a Model. Nutrients 2019, 11, 723. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040723

AMA Style

Ponnampalam EN, Vahedi V, Giri K, Lewandowski P, Jacobs JL, Dunshea FR. Muscle Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Gene Expression Are Altered by Diet-Induced Increase in Muscle Essential Fatty Acid (α-linolenic acid) Concentration in Sheep Used as a Model. Nutrients. 2019; 11(4):723. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040723

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ponnampalam, Eric N., Vahid Vahedi, Khageswor Giri, Paul Lewandowski, Joe L. Jacobs, and Frank R. Dunshea. 2019. "Muscle Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Gene Expression Are Altered by Diet-Induced Increase in Muscle Essential Fatty Acid (α-linolenic acid) Concentration in Sheep Used as a Model" Nutrients 11, no. 4: 723. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040723

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