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Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and Their Implications on the Development of Metabolic Syndrome

by Iryna Liauchonak 1,†, Bessi Qorri 2,†, Fady Dawoud 1,†, Yatin Riat 1,†,‡ and Myron R. Szewczuk 2,*
1
Graduate Diploma and Professional Master in Medical Sciences, Postgraduate Medical Education, School of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
2
Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current address: Emergency Medicine, Resident Physician, Brooklyn Hospital Centre, 121 DeKalb Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030644
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
Individuals widely use non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) in attempts to lower their overall daily caloric intake, lose weight, and sustain a healthy diet. There are insufficient scientific data that support the safety of consuming NNS. However, recent studies have suggested that NNS consumption can induce gut microbiota dysbiosis and promote glucose intolerance in healthy individuals that may result in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This sequence of events may result in changes in the gut microbiota composition through microRNA (miRNA)-mediated changes. The mechanism(s) by which miRNAs alter gene expression of different bacterial species provides a link between the consumption of NNS and the development of metabolic changes. Another potential mechanism that connects NNS to metabolic changes is the molecular crosstalk between the insulin receptor (IR) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we aim to highlight the role of NNS in obesity and discuss IR-GPCR crosstalk and miRNA-mediated changes, in the manipulation of the gut microbiota composition and T2DM pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-nutritive sweeteners; type 2 diabetes mellitus; gut microbiota; GPCR; insulin receptor signaling; miRNAs non-nutritive sweeteners; type 2 diabetes mellitus; gut microbiota; GPCR; insulin receptor signaling; miRNAs
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Liauchonak, I.; Qorri, B.; Dawoud, F.; Riat, Y.; Szewczuk, M.R. Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and Their Implications on the Development of Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2019, 11, 644.

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