Special Issue "Consumption of Sugars, Sugary Foods, and Sugary Beverages in Relation to Disease Risk"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Gerard Slama
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Rene Descartes Paris V, Fac Med, Ave Ecole Med 15, F-75006 Paris, France
Interests: nutrition in diabetes; carbohydrates; glycemic index of foods; diabetes therapies
Prof. Dr. Luc Tappy
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Interests: metabolism of sugars at rest and during exercise; role of fructose in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is increasing concern that high intakes of added sugar have deleterious effects on health. This rests mainly on studies that have assessed the relationships between sugar-sweetened beverages and disease-related risk markers and outcomes. The role of sugars in other foods, the daily dose of sugars associated with adverse effects, the interactions between dietary sugar content and total energy intake remains poorly documented.

The purpose of this Special Issue devoted to “Consumption of Sugars, Sugary Foods, and Sugary Beverages in Relation to Disease Risk” is, therefore, to gather recent reviews, meta-analyses, and original reports addressing

  • Methodological issues in assessing sugar intake from various food groups
  • Consumption levels of various sugar-containing foods in the population
  • Relationships between total-, added- or free sugars intake from various food groups and health-related outcomes (observational cohort studies and randomized controlled trials)
  • Mechanisms linking consumption and health outcomes according to sugar type, food group, food matrix, and physical form of nutrients
  • Relationship between intake of sugar-containing foods on the one hand, and total energy intake and physical activity on the other hand
  • Concept of nutritional quality of sugar-containing foods
  • Alternatives to dietary sugars for a healthy nutrition

Or other related issues

Knowing your interest in this field, and the high quality of your research, we very much hope that you will send us articles to consider for publication, and look forward to evaluating them swiftly 

Prof. Dr. Gerard Slama
Prof. Dr. Luc Tappy
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dietary sugar intake
  • Sugar-containing food groups
  • Food intake control
  • Physical activity
  • Obesity
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Non-transmissible diseases

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Raw Orange, 100% Fresh Orange Juice, and Nectar- Sweetened Orange Juice—Effects on Blood Glucose and Insulin Levels on Healthy Subjects
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092171 - 10 Sep 2019
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of consumption of raw orange (RO), 100% fresh orange juice (FOJ), and nectar-sweetened orange juice (NSOJ) on postprandial glucose and insulin levels in non-diabetic young Emirati women. Research Methods: This is a [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of consumption of raw orange (RO), 100% fresh orange juice (FOJ), and nectar-sweetened orange juice (NSOJ) on postprandial glucose and insulin levels in non-diabetic young Emirati women. Research Methods: This is a prospective, three-way, crossover study design. Blood records of thirteen normal weight and seven healthy obese university students were analyzed from Zayed University on three random days with the following three meal samples: 2 ROs, 100% FOJ, and NSOJ. Venous blood was collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the respective meal consumption. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analysis of variance and calculations of the area under the glucose and insulin curves (AUC) for each one of the meal samples. Results: Total fasting glucose and insulin levels did not differ by treatment in the normal versus obese group. All three meals had no significant effects on the plasma glucose levels. However, there was a significant change in plasma insulin concentrations at 120 min compared with that at 0 min for RO: −14 (−27.05, −0.90, P < 0.001); 100% FOJ −13.7 (−28.80, 1.44, P < 0.001); and NSOJ: −9.2 (−28.75, 10.30, P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that whole fresh fruit, 100% fruit juice, and sweetened fruit juice did not have a significant effect on the blood glucose levels in non-diabetic Emirati university students. However, a significant decrease in insulin response and HOMA-IR on all three sample meals was observed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In Utero Dexamethasone Exposure Exacerbates Hepatic Steatosis in Rats That Consume Fructose During Adulthood
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2114; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092114 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Distinct environmental insults might interact with fructose consumption and contribute to the development of metabolic disorders. To address whether in utero glucocorticoid exposure and fructose intake modulate metabolic responses, adult female Wistar rats were exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) during pregnancy, and the offspring [...] Read more.
Distinct environmental insults might interact with fructose consumption and contribute to the development of metabolic disorders. To address whether in utero glucocorticoid exposure and fructose intake modulate metabolic responses, adult female Wistar rats were exposed to dexamethasone (DEX) during pregnancy, and the offspring were administered fructose at a later time. Briefly, dams received DEX during the third period of pregnancy, while control dams remained untreated. Offspring born to control and DEX-treated mothers were defined as CTL-off and DEX-off, respectively, while untreated animals were designated CTL-off-CTL and DEX-off-CTL. CLT-off and DEX-off treated with 10% fructose in the drinking water for 8 weeks are referred to as CTL-off-FRU and DEX-off-FRU. We found that fructose promoted glucose intolerance and whole-body gluconeogenesis in both CTL-off-FRU and DEX-off-FRU animals. On the other hand, hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly stimulated in DEX-off-FRU rats when compared to the CTL-off-FRU group. The DEX-off-FRU group also displayed impaired very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and reduced hepatic expression of apoB, mttp, and sec22b. DEX-off-FRU has lower hepatic levels of autophagy markers. Taken together, our results support the unprecedented notion that in utero glucocorticoid exposure exacerbates hepatic steatosis caused by fructose consumption later in life. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Energy Expenditure, Carbohydrate Oxidation and Appetitive Responses to Sucrose or Sucralose in Humans: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081782 - 01 Aug 2019
Abstract
Background: In light of obesity, replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners is commonly used to reduce sugar content of food products. This study aimed to compare human energy expenditure (EE), carbohydrate oxidation and food intake after the ingestion of test foods sweetened with sucrose [...] Read more.
Background: In light of obesity, replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners is commonly used to reduce sugar content of food products. This study aimed to compare human energy expenditure (EE), carbohydrate oxidation and food intake after the ingestion of test foods sweetened with sucrose or a non-nutritive sweetener. Methods: This was an acute crossover feeding study that entailed consumption of three test foods: jelly sweetened with 50 g sucrose (SUCROSE), with 120 mg of sucralose only (NNS), or 120 mg sucralose but matched in carbohydrate with 50 g maltodextrin (MALT). On test days, participants arrived at the research facility after an overnight fast. Resting energy expenditure (indirect calorimeter) was measured for 30 min followed by jelly consumption. Participants’ EE and substrate oxidation were measured for 90 min subsequently. After EE assessment, participants completed a meal challenge before leaving the research facility, and recorded food intake for the remaining day. Subjective appetite ratings were assessed before and after test foods and meal challenge. Results: Eleven participants completed the study. EE was higher in SUCROSE and MALT than NNS, but not statistically significant. Carbohydrate oxidation was SUCROSE > MALT > NNS (p < 0.001). Earlier and bigger rise in carbohydrate oxidation was observed in SUCROSE than MALT, although both were carbohydrate-matched. NNS did not promote energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation or stimulate appetite. Conclusions: Foods sweetened with sucrose or non-nutritive sweeteners but matched in carbohydrate content have different effects on human EE and carbohydrate oxidation. Sucralose alone did not affect EE, but lower energy in the test food from sugar replacement was eventually fully compensated. Findings from this pilot study should be verified with bigger clinical studies in the future to establish clinical relevance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Body Mass Index Z-Score Modifies the Association between Added Sugar Intake and Arterial Stiffness in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: The Search Nutrition Ancillary Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081752 - 30 Jul 2019
Abstract
The relationship between added sugar and arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has not been well-described. We used data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (SEARCH), an ongoing observational cohort study, to determine the association between added sugar [...] Read more.
The relationship between added sugar and arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has not been well-described. We used data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (SEARCH), an ongoing observational cohort study, to determine the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness in individuals diagnosed with T1D <20 years of age (n = 1539; mean diabetes duration of 7.9 ± 1.9 years). Added sugar intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, and arterial stiffness measures included pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index. Separate multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness. Separate interaction terms were included to test for effect modification by body mass index (BMI) z-score and physical activity (PA). Overall, there was no association between added sugar and arterial stiffness (P > 0.05); however, the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness differed by BMI z-score (P for interaction = 0.003). For participants with lower BMI z-scores, added sugar intake was positively associated with PWV trunk measurements, whereas there was no association for those who had a higher BMI z-score. PA did not significantly modify the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness. Further research is needed to determine the longitudinal relationship and to confirm that obesity differentially affects this association. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Contribute Significantly to College Students’ Daily Caloric Intake in Jordan: Soft Drinks Are Not the Major Contributor
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051058 - 11 May 2019
Abstract
Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are caloric-dense and associated with poor diet quality which may result in weight gain and obesity. Obesity is an independent risk factor for several chronic diseases. This study aimed to (1) assess the consumption level of SSBs among college [...] Read more.
Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are caloric-dense and associated with poor diet quality which may result in weight gain and obesity. Obesity is an independent risk factor for several chronic diseases. This study aimed to (1) assess the consumption level of SSBs among college students in Jordan and (2) examine the relationship of consumption level to body weight. The current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on 967 college students (55.3% males and 44.7% females). Consumption of SSBs was assessed using validated questionnaires. SSBs were classified into four major categories (hot drinks, fruit drinks, energy drinks, and soft drinks). Anthropometric measurements of the participants including body weight, height, and waist circumferences were recorded. Male students consumed more calories from SSBs compared to female students (p = 0.016). The mean contribution of SSBs to daily energy intake among college students was 480 kcal with the highest contribution from sugar sweetened hot drinks and fruit drinks. A significant positive relationship was found in BMI (p = 0.006) and waist circumference (p = 0.030) for participants consuming calories from SSBs. In conclusion, beverages with added sugar contribute substantially to the daily energy intake of college students in Jordan. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Low-Income Population Sugar (Sucrose) Intake: A Cross-Sectional Study among Adults Assisted by a Brazilian Food Assistance Program
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040798 - 08 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Non-communicable diseases are increasing worldwide, and it has been known that sugar intake is associated with health implications. Studies show that sugar consumption is high among the low-income population. In Brazil, there is a Food Assistance Program to offer inexpensive and healthy meals [...] Read more.
Non-communicable diseases are increasing worldwide, and it has been known that sugar intake is associated with health implications. Studies show that sugar consumption is high among the low-income population. In Brazil, there is a Food Assistance Program to offer inexpensive and healthy meals to the low-income population, aiming to improve their health. However, no study has evaluated either the amount of sugar consumption by the Brazilian low-income population or its distribution among the consumed products. This work aimed to analyze the sugar (sucrose) consumption by the Brazilian low-income population. We carried out a cross-sectional and descriptive study to evaluate the typical customers of a popular restaurant (PR) in Brazil (a Brazilian Food Assistance Program for low-income people). In the final sample, 1232 adult PR customers were surveyed. The exclusion criteria were pregnant women, diabetics, or people following any special diet with sucrose restrictions. Individuals were selected at lunchtime while they were in line waiting to collect their meal. Invitations to participate occurred to the first person in line, then the 15th person, and this pattern was used until the sample was completed. Three-day 24 h recall was used to evaluate sugar consumption. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected to allow profiling of the customers. A statistical analysis of the data with descriptive nature (frequency, mean, median, percentage, and standard deviation) was performed to characterize the sample. For all the analyses, statistical normality tests were performed (Kolmogorov–Smirnov) to verify the statistical test assumptions. The mean total energy value (TEV) over the evaluated three-day period was 1980.23 ± 726.75 kcal. A statistically significant difference was found between income groups (p < 0.01). The North and Northeast region presented the lowest mean income in Brazil, statistically different from the South (p < 0.01) and the Southeast (p < 0.01). The North region presented the lowest sugar intake from industrialized products—different from the Northeast (p = 0.007), the Southeast (p = 0.010), and the South (p = 0.043). Also, the North presented the lowest consumption for food prepared at home among other regions (p < 0.001). Total sugar (sucrose) intake did not differ according to body mass index (p = 0.321). There was no significant difference in sugar (sucrose) consumption among the three days (p = 0.078). The addition of sugar (sucrose) contributed to 36.7% of all sugar (sucrose), and sweetened beverages with 22.53%. Food prepared at home contributed 20.06% and industrialized products 22.53% of the sugar (sucrose) intake. Therefore, free sugar (sucrose) consumption is still the largest contributor to the total consumption of sugar (sucrose), followed by sweetened drinks, especially during the weekend. The average percentage of sugar (sucrose) intake is above the World Health Organization recommendation to consume less than 5% of the total energy that comes from sugars. Since this population presents a high percentage of overweight and obese, the sugar (sucrose) consumption could increase health implications, increasing the costs for public health. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Abnormalities in Normal Weight Children Are Associated with Increased Visceral Fat Accumulation, Elevated Plasma Endotoxin Levels and a Higher Monosaccharide Intake
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030652 - 18 Mar 2019
Abstract
Being overweight has been identified as the main risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders in adults and children. However, recent studies suggest that normal weight individuals are also frequently affected by metabolic abnormalities with underlying mechanisms not yet fully understood. The [...] Read more.
Being overweight has been identified as the main risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders in adults and children. However, recent studies suggest that normal weight individuals are also frequently affected by metabolic abnormalities with underlying mechanisms not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to determine if dietary pattern and markers of intestinal permeability, as well as inflammation, differ between normal weight healthy children and normal weight children suffering from metabolic abnormalities. In total, 45 normal weight children aged 5–9 years were included in the study, of whom nine suffered from metabolic abnormalities. Anthropometric data, dietary intake and markers of inflammation, as well as intestinal permeability, were assessed in fasting blood samples. Neither BMI nor BMI-SDS differed between groups; however, children with metabolic abnormalities had a significantly larger waist circumference (+~5 cm) and a higher leptin to adiponectin ratio. While plasma leptin levels are significantly higher in normal weight children with metabolic abnormalities, neither TNF α nor sCD14, adiponectin, PAI-1 or IL-6 plasma levels differed between groups. Despite similar total calorie and macronutrient intake between groups, mean total fructose and total glucose intake (resulting mainly from sugar sweetened beverages, fruits and sweets) were higher in children with metabolic abnormalities than in healthy children. Time spent physically active was significantly higher in healthy normal weight children whereas time spent physically inactive was similar between groups. Furthermore, bacterial endotoxin levels were significantly higher in the peripheral plasma of normal weight children with metabolic abnormalities than in healthy normal weight children. Our results suggest that metabolic disorders in normal weight children are associated with a high monosaccharide intake and elevated bacterial endotoxin as well as leptin plasma levels, the latter also discussed as being indicative of visceral adiposity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and Their Implications on the Development of Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030644 - 16 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Individuals widely use non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) in attempts to lower their overall daily caloric intake, lose weight, and sustain a healthy diet. There are insufficient scientific data that support the safety of consuming NNS. However, recent studies have suggested that NNS consumption can [...] Read more.
Individuals widely use non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) in attempts to lower their overall daily caloric intake, lose weight, and sustain a healthy diet. There are insufficient scientific data that support the safety of consuming NNS. However, recent studies have suggested that NNS consumption can induce gut microbiota dysbiosis and promote glucose intolerance in healthy individuals that may result in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This sequence of events may result in changes in the gut microbiota composition through microRNA (miRNA)-mediated changes. The mechanism(s) by which miRNAs alter gene expression of different bacterial species provides a link between the consumption of NNS and the development of metabolic changes. Another potential mechanism that connects NNS to metabolic changes is the molecular crosstalk between the insulin receptor (IR) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we aim to highlight the role of NNS in obesity and discuss IR-GPCR crosstalk and miRNA-mediated changes, in the manipulation of the gut microbiota composition and T2DM pathogenesis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop