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Article

The Prognostic Nutritional Index and Nutritional Risk Index Are Associated with Disease Activity in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

1
Department of Nursing, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Granada (UGR), Avenida de la Ilustración s/n, 18100-Armilla (Granada), Spain
2
Health Sciences Facultuy. PhD student of the Public Health and Clinic Medicine program of the University of Granada (UGR), Avenida de la Ilustración s/n, 18100-Armilla (Granada), Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria, IBS. Avda. de Madrid, 15. Pabellón de consultas externas 2, 2ª planta, 18012 Granada, Spain
4
Unidad de Enfermedades Autoinmunes Sistémicas, Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Av. de la Investigación, s/n, 18016 Granada, Spain
5
Unidad de Enfermedades Autoinmunes Sistémicas, Servicio de Medicina Interna, Complejo Hospitalario de Jaén, Av. del Ejército Español, 10, 23007 Jaén, Spain
6
Unidad de Enfermedades Autoinmunes Sistémicas, Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Poniente, Carretera de Almerimar, 31, 04700 El Ejido, Almería, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030638
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
The prognostic nutritional index (PNI), controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score and nutritional risk index (NRI) have been described as useful screening tools for patient prognosis in several diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PNI, CONUT and NRI with clinical disease activity and damage in 173 patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). Disease activity was assessed with the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI-2K), and disease-related organ damage was assessed using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI) damage index. PNI and NRI were significantly lower in active SLE patients than in inactive SLE patients (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively). PNI was inversely correlated with the SLEDAI score (p < 0.001) and NRI positively correlated with SLEDAI and SDI scores (p = 0.027 and p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis adjusting for age, sex and medications showed that PNI was inversely correlated with SLEDAI (β (95% CI) = −0.176 (−0.254, −0.098), p < 0.001) and NRI positively correlated with SLEDAI (β (95% CI) = 0.056 (0.019, 0.093), p = 0.003) and SDI (β (95% CI) = 0.047 (0.031, 0.063), p < 0.001). PNI (odds ratio (OR) 0.884, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.809–0.967, p = 0.007) and NRI ((OR) 1.067, 95% CI 1.028–1.108, p = 0.001) were independent predictors of active SLE. These findings suggest that PNI and NRI may be useful markers to identify active SLE in clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: prognostic nutritional index; controlling nutritional status; nutritional risk index; systemic lupus erythematosus; lupus disease activity; lupus damage prognostic nutritional index; controlling nutritional status; nutritional risk index; systemic lupus erythematosus; lupus disease activity; lupus damage
MDPI and ACS Style

Correa-Rodríguez, M.; Pocovi-Gerardino, G.; Callejas-Rubio, J.-L.; Fernández, R.R.; Martín-Amada, M.; Cruz-Caparros, M.-G.; Ortego-Centeno, N.; Rueda-Medina, B. The Prognostic Nutritional Index and Nutritional Risk Index Are Associated with Disease Activity in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Nutrients 2019, 11, 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030638

AMA Style

Correa-Rodríguez M, Pocovi-Gerardino G, Callejas-Rubio J-L, Fernández RR, Martín-Amada M, Cruz-Caparros M-G, Ortego-Centeno N, Rueda-Medina B. The Prognostic Nutritional Index and Nutritional Risk Index Are Associated with Disease Activity in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Nutrients. 2019; 11(3):638. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030638

Chicago/Turabian Style

Correa-Rodríguez, María, Gabriela Pocovi-Gerardino, José-Luis Callejas-Rubio, Raquel R. Fernández, María Martín-Amada, María-Gracia Cruz-Caparros, Norberto Ortego-Centeno, and Blanca Rueda-Medina. 2019. "The Prognostic Nutritional Index and Nutritional Risk Index Are Associated with Disease Activity in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus" Nutrients 11, no. 3: 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030638

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