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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of an Infant Formula Supplemented with AA and DHA on Fatty Acid Levels of Infants with Different FADS Genotypes: The COGNIS Study

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Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Gastronomy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII 27-31, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Institut de Recerca en Nutrició i Seguretat Alimentària de la UB (INSA-UB), 08921 Barcelona, Spain
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Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of San Francisco de Quito, Quito 170157, Ecuador
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Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, 08830 Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
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Centre of Excellence for Paediatric Research EURISTIKOS, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
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Department of Paediatrics, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
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CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CIBERobn, Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Basic Research Department. Ordesa Laboratories, 08830 Barcelona, Spain
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CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health CIBEResp, Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030602
Received: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing and Nutrition through Lifespan)
Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes influence the arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid concentrations (crucial in early life). Infants with specific genotypes may require different amounts of these fatty acids (FAs) to maintain an adequate status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with AA and DHA on FAs of infants with different FADS genotypes. In total, 176 infants from the COGNIS study were randomly allocated to the Standard Formula (SF; n = 61) or the Experimental Formula (EF; n = 70) group, the latter supplemented with AA and DHA. Breastfed infants were added as a reference group (BF; n = 45). FAs and FADS polymorphisms were analyzed from cheek cells collected at 3 months of age. FADS minor allele carriership in formula fed infants, especially those supplemented, was associated with a declined desaturase activity and lower AA and DHA levels. Breastfed infants were not affected, possibly to the high content of AA and DHA in breast milk. The supplementation increased AA and DHA levels, but mostly in major allele carriers. In conclusion, infant FADS genotype could contribute to narrow the gap of AA and DHA concentrations between breastfed and formula fed infants. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acids; omega 6; omega 3; breast milk; infant formula; fatty acid desaturases; early life nutrition; control formula; intervention formula; exclusive breastfeeding fatty acids; omega 6; omega 3; breast milk; infant formula; fatty acid desaturases; early life nutrition; control formula; intervention formula; exclusive breastfeeding
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Salas Lorenzo, I.; Chisaguano Tonato, A.M.; de la Garza Puentes, A.; Nieto, A.; Herrmann, F.; Dieguez, E.; Castellote, A.I.; López-Sabater, M.C.; Rodríguez-Palmero, M.; Campoy, C. The Effect of an Infant Formula Supplemented with AA and DHA on Fatty Acid Levels of Infants with Different FADS Genotypes: The COGNIS Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 602.

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