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Article

Diurnal Patterns of Energy Intake Derived via Principal Component Analysis and Their Relationship with Adiposity Measures in Adolescents: Results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey RP (2008–2012)

1
Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
2
Brain, Performance and Nutrition Research Centre, Northumbria University, Newcastle NE1 8ST, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020422
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 17 February 2019
Mounting evidence points towards the existence of an association between energy intake in the evening and an increased prevalence and risk of being overweight and of obesity. The present study aimed to describe diurnal eating patterns (DEP) in a nationally representative sample of UK adolescents and to relate the derived DEP to anthropometrical measures. Data from four-day food records of adolescents aged 11–18 years participating in the 2008–2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (NDNS RP) was utilised. The DEP were derived using a principal component analysis on the correlation matrix. Three orthogonal diurnal patterns were interpretable as (i) a linear contrast (8% of total system variation) between breakfast and an earlier lunch vs. a later lunch, late dinner, and evening/night snack, renamed “phase shift” DEP; (ii) a linear contrast (6.0% of system variation) between midmorning snacks, late lunch, and early dinner vs. breakfast, early and late morning snacks, early lunch, midafternoon snacks, and late dinner, renamed “early eating and grazing” DEP; (iii) a linear contrast (6.0% of system variation) between late main meals vs. early main meals and night snacks which was renamed “early main meals and night snacks vs. late main meals” DEP. After the adjustment for confounders, every 1 unit increase in the “early main meals and night snacks vs. late main meals”’ DEP score was significantly associated with a 0.29 kg/m2 and 11.6 mm increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference, respectively. There were no significant associations with the other two main DEPs. In conclusion, adolescents who tended to eat large early main meals and night snacks rather than slightly later main meals without night snacks had higher BMI and waist circumference. Further research is required to explore the determinants of DEP and to explore the impact of the context of eating and socioecological factors in the development of specific DEP. View Full-Text
Keywords: eating time; chrononutrition; dietary pattern; principal component analysis; adolescents; childhood obesity; BMI; waist circumference; chronotype; circadian rhythm eating time; chrononutrition; dietary pattern; principal component analysis; adolescents; childhood obesity; BMI; waist circumference; chronotype; circadian rhythm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Palla, L.; Almoosawi, S. Diurnal Patterns of Energy Intake Derived via Principal Component Analysis and Their Relationship with Adiposity Measures in Adolescents: Results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey RP (2008–2012). Nutrients 2019, 11, 422. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020422

AMA Style

Palla L, Almoosawi S. Diurnal Patterns of Energy Intake Derived via Principal Component Analysis and Their Relationship with Adiposity Measures in Adolescents: Results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey RP (2008–2012). Nutrients. 2019; 11(2):422. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020422

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palla, Luigi, and Suzana Almoosawi. 2019. "Diurnal Patterns of Energy Intake Derived via Principal Component Analysis and Their Relationship with Adiposity Measures in Adolescents: Results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey RP (2008–2012)" Nutrients 11, no. 2: 422. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020422

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