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The Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity

1
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Avda. Investigación 11, 18016 Granada, Spain
2
EURISTIKOS Excellence Centre for Paediatric Research, Biomedical Research Centre, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs, GRANADA, Health Sciences Technological Park, 18012 Granada, Spain
4
Spanish Network of Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Granada’s node, Carlos III Health Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030635
Received: 3 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract

Obesity is a global pandemic complex to treat due to its multifactorial pathogenesis—an unhealthy lifestyle, neuronal and hormonal mechanisms, and genetic and epigenetic factors are involved. Scientific evidence supports the idea that obesity and metabolic consequences are strongly related to changes in both the function and composition of gut microbiota, which exert an essential role in modulating energy metabolism. Modifications of gut microbiota composition have been associated with variations in body weight and body mass index. Lifestyle modifications remain as primary therapy for obesity and related metabolic disorders. New therapeutic strategies to treat/prevent obesity have been proposed, based on pre- and/or probiotic modulation of gut microbiota to mimic that found in healthy non-obese subjects. Based on human and animal studies, this review aimed to discuss mechanisms through which gut microbiota could act as a key modifier of obesity and related metabolic complications. Evidence from animal studies and human clinical trials suggesting potential beneficial effects of prebiotic and various probiotic strains on those physical, biochemical, and metabolic parameters related to obesity is presented. As a conclusion, a deeper knowledge about pre-/probiotic mechanisms of action, in combination with adequately powered, randomized controlled follow-up studies, will facilitate the clinical application and development of personalized healthcare strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; gut microbiota; probiotics; prebiotics; nutrition obesity; gut microbiota; probiotics; prebiotics; nutrition
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Cerdó, T.; García-Santos, J.A.; G. Bermúdez, M.; Campoy, C. The Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Nutrients 2019, 11, 635.

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