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Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020365

Salmon in Combination with High Glycemic Index Carbohydrates Increases Diet-Induced Thermogenesis Compared with Salmon with Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates–An Acute Randomized Cross-Over Meal Test Study

1
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
2
Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 København Ø, Denmark
3
Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, 5792 Aarslev, Denmark
4
NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands
5
Institute of Marine Research, 5005 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Glycemic Index and Human Health)
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Abstract

The study investigated the acute effects of meals containing either salmon or veal in combination with carbohydrates with high or low glycemic index (GI) on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (primary endpoint), appetite sensations, and energy intake (EI). Twenty-five overweight men and women ingested four iso-caloric test meals: salmon with mashed potatoes (high GI) (SM), salmon with wholegrain pasta (low GI) (SP), veal with mashed potatoes (VM) and veal with wholegrain pasta (VP). Energy expenditure was measured in the fasting state and six times postprandially for 25 min with 5-min breaks between each measurement. Appetite sensations were measured every 30 min. Blood samples, from arterialized venous blood, were drawn every 20 min until an ad libitum buffet-style lunch was served 3.5 h later. DIT was 40% higher after the SM meal compared to the SP meal (p = 0.002). Prospective food consumption was lower after the SM meal compared with the VP meal (p = 0.01). There were no differences in satiety, hunger, fullness, or ad libitum EI between the test meals (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, salmon with high GI carbohydrates increased DIT compared to salmon with low GI carbohydrates. This indicates that DIT is sensitive to the GI of the carbohydrates after intake of salmon but not veal. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein; fish; meat; appetite; amino acids; ghrelin; glucose; energy expenditure; energy intake; mixed meals protein; fish; meat; appetite; amino acids; ghrelin; glucose; energy expenditure; energy intake; mixed meals
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Nielsen, L.V.; Nyby, S.; Klingenberg, L.; Ritz, C.; Sundekilde, U.K.; Bertram, H.C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Liaset, B.; Kristiansen, K.; Madsen, L.; Raben, A. Salmon in Combination with High Glycemic Index Carbohydrates Increases Diet-Induced Thermogenesis Compared with Salmon with Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates–An Acute Randomized Cross-Over Meal Test Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 365.

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