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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Maternal Nutrition and Perinatal Factors on Breast Milk Composition after Premature Delivery

Department of Neonatology, Maternite Regionale, CHRU Nancy, 54035 Nancy, France
DevAH, Lorraine University, 54500 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
Dietetic and Nutrition Unit, CHRU Nancy, 54035 Nancy, France
Saint Cloud Hospital, 92210 Paris, France
Bledina Limonest, 69410 Champagne-au-Mont-d’Or, France
Biology Laboratory, CHRU Nancy, 54035 Nancy, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 366;
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
(1) Background: Premature infants require mothers’ milk fortification to meet nutrition needs, but breast milk composition may be variable, leading to the risk of inadequate nutrition. We aimed at determining the factors influencing mothers’ milk macronutrients. (2) Methods: Milk samples were analyzed for the first five weeks after premature delivery by infrared spectroscopy. Mothers’ nutritional intake data were obtained during standardized interviews with dieticians, and then analyzed with reference software. (3) Results: The composition of 367 milk samples from 81 mothers was (median (range) g/100 mL): carbohydrates 6.8 (4.4–7.3), lipids 3.4 (1.3–6.4), proteins 1.3 (0.1–3.1). There was a relationship between milk composition and mothers’ carbohydrates intake only (r = 0.164; p < 0.01). Postnatal age was correlated with milk proteins (r = −0.505; p < 0.001) and carbohydrates (r = +0.202, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed (coefficient) a relationship between milk proteins r = 0.547 and postnatal age (−0.028), carbohydrate intake (+0.449), and the absence of maturation (−0.066); associations were also found among milk lipids r = 0.295, carbohydrate intake (+1.279), and smoking (−0.557). Finally, there was a relationship among the concentration of milk carbohydrates r = 0.266, postnatal age (+0.012), and smoking (−0.167). (4) Conclusions: The variability of mothers’ milk composition is differentially associated for each macronutrient with maternal carbohydrate intake, antenatal steroids, smoking, and postnatal age. Improvement in milk composition could be achieved by the modification of these related factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal nutrition; breast milk; premature delivery; milk composition maternal nutrition; breast milk; premature delivery; milk composition
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Hascoët, J.-M.; Chauvin, M.; Pierret, C.; Skweres, S.; Van Egroo, L.-D.; Rougé, C.; Franck, P. Impact of Maternal Nutrition and Perinatal Factors on Breast Milk Composition after Premature Delivery. Nutrients 2019, 11, 366.

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