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Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020366

Impact of Maternal Nutrition and Perinatal Factors on Breast Milk Composition after Premature Delivery

1
Department of Neonatology, Maternite Regionale, CHRU Nancy, 54035 Nancy, France
2
DevAH, Lorraine University, 54500 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France
3
Dietetic and Nutrition Unit, CHRU Nancy, 54035 Nancy, France
4
Department of Neonatology, Maternite Regionale, CHRU Nancy, 54035 Nancy, France
5
Saint Cloud Hospital, 92210 Paris, France
6
Bledina Limonest, 69410 Champagne-au-Mont-d’Or, France
7
Biology Laboratory, CHRU Nancy, 54035 Nancy, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
PDF [628 KB, uploaded 10 February 2019]   |   Review Reports

Abstract

(1) Background: Premature infants require mothers’ milk fortification to meet nutrition needs, but breast milk composition may be variable, leading to the risk of inadequate nutrition. We aimed at determining the factors influencing mothers’ milk macronutrients. (2) Methods: Milk samples were analyzed for the first five weeks after premature delivery by infrared spectroscopy. Mothers’ nutritional intake data were obtained during standardized interviews with dieticians, and then analyzed with reference software. (3) Results: The composition of 367 milk samples from 81 mothers was (median (range) g/100 mL): carbohydrates 6.8 (4.4–7.3), lipids 3.4 (1.3–6.4), proteins 1.3 (0.1–3.1). There was a relationship between milk composition and mothers’ carbohydrates intake only (r = 0.164; p < 0.01). Postnatal age was correlated with milk proteins (r = −0.505; p < 0.001) and carbohydrates (r = +0.202, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed (coefficient) a relationship between milk proteins r = 0.547 and postnatal age (−0.028), carbohydrate intake (+0.449), and the absence of maturation (−0.066); associations were also found among milk lipids r = 0.295, carbohydrate intake (+1.279), and smoking (−0.557). Finally, there was a relationship among the concentration of milk carbohydrates r = 0.266, postnatal age (+0.012), and smoking (−0.167). (4) Conclusions: The variability of mothers’ milk composition is differentially associated for each macronutrient with maternal carbohydrate intake, antenatal steroids, smoking, and postnatal age. Improvement in milk composition could be achieved by the modification of these related factors.
Keywords: maternal nutrition; breast milk; premature delivery; milk composition maternal nutrition; breast milk; premature delivery; milk composition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hascoët, J.-M.; Chauvin, M.; Pierret, C.; Skweres, S.; Egroo, L.-D.; Rougé, C.; Franck, P. Impact of Maternal Nutrition and Perinatal Factors on Breast Milk Composition after Premature Delivery. Nutrients 2019, 11, 366.

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