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Open AccessArticle

Comparative Bioavailability of Synthetic B12 and Dietary Vitamin B12 Present in Cow and Buffalo Milk: A Prospective Study in Lactovegetarian Indians

1
Department of Pathology, Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital and Research Center, Pune 411004, India
2
Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark
3
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020304
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
We assessed improvements in the vitamin B12 status of Indian lactovegetarians receiving four weeks supplementation with natural B12 in milk versus cyano-B12 in capsules. Three groups (n = 22, 23, 22) received daily oral doses of cyano-B12 (2 × 0.76 µg) or milk (2 × 200 mL) from a cow or buffalo (amounting to B12 ≈ 2 × 0.76 µg). Their blood was examined at baseline and each following week. The baselines (median (min/max)) indicated a low B12 status: plasma B12 (116(51/314)) pmol/L, holotranscobalamin (holoTC) (30(7/119)) pmol/L, total homocysteine (Hcy) (24(10/118)) µmol/L, methylmalonic acid (MMA) (0.58(0.15/2.2)) µmol/L and combined B12 index (cB12) (−1.32 − (−3.12/+0.29)). Shifts from the baselines (B12, holoTC, cB12) and ratios to the baselines (Hcy, MMA) were analyzed over time. The cyano-B12 treatment gave more total B12 in plasma at week one (+29 pmol/L, p = 0.004) but showed no further increase. Other biomarkers changed more comparably between the three groups (p ≥ 0.05): holoTC showed a transient spike that leveled off, Hcy finally decreased to 0.8 × baseline, while MMA showed marginal changes. The combined indexes improved comparably (p = 0.6) in all groups (+0.2(−0.3/+0.9), p ≤ 0.002). In conclusion, the tested formulations similarly improved B12 status, but did not normalize it. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin B12; cobalamin; cyano-B12; hydroxo-B12; B12 supplementation; B12 deficiency; milk; cow; buffalo vitamin B12; cobalamin; cyano-B12; hydroxo-B12; B12 supplementation; B12 deficiency; milk; cow; buffalo
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Mahalle, N.; Bhide, V.; Greibe, E.; Heegaard, C.W.; Nexo, E.; Fedosov, S.N.; Naik, S. Comparative Bioavailability of Synthetic B12 and Dietary Vitamin B12 Present in Cow and Buffalo Milk: A Prospective Study in Lactovegetarian Indians. Nutrients 2019, 11, 304.

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