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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Association of Iron Status and Intake During Pregnancy with Neuropsychological Outcomes in Children Aged 7 Years: The Prospective Birth Cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Study

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Nutrition and Public Health Unit, Research Group on Nutrition and Mental Health (NUTRISAM), Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain
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Pere Virgili Institute for Health Research (IISPV), Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43003 Tarragona, Spain
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Department of Psychology, Research Center for Behavioral Assessment (CRAMC), Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43003 Tarragona, Spain
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ISGlobal- Instituto de Salud Global de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Biomedical Research Centre Network for Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus University Medical Centre-Sophia Children’s Hospital, 3000CD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Health, Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, 20014 San Sebastian, Spain
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BIODONOSTIA Health Research Institute, 20014 San Sebastian, Spain
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Faculty of Psychology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 20018 San Sebastian, Spain
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Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO−Universitat Jaume I−Universitat de València, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, 03550 Alicante, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122999
Received: 6 November 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 7 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from NUTRIMAD 2018)
Early iron status plays an important role in prenatal neurodevelopment. Iron deficiency and high iron status have been related to alterations in child cognitive development; however, there are no data about iron intake during pregnancy with other environmental factors in relation to long term cognitive functioning of children. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between maternal iron status and iron intake during pregnancy and child neuropsychological outcomes at 7 years of age. We used data from the INMA Cohort population-based study. Iron status during pregnancy was assessed according to serum ferritin levels, and iron intake was assessed with food frequency questionnaires. Working memory, attention, and executive function were assessed in children at 7 years old with the N-Back task, Attention Network Task, and the Trail Making Test, respectively. The results show that, after controlling for potential confounders, normal maternal serum ferritin levels (from 12 mg/L to 60 mg/L) and iron intake (from 14.5 mg/day to 30.0 mg/day), respectively, were related to better scores in working memory and executive functioning in offspring. Since these functions have been associated with better academic performance and adaptation to the environment, maintaining a good state of maternal iron from the beginning of pregnancy could be a valuable strategy for the community. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron status; iron intake; pregnancy; neuropsychological function; working memory; attention; executive function iron status; iron intake; pregnancy; neuropsychological function; working memory; attention; executive function
MDPI and ACS Style

Arija, V.; Hernández-Martínez, C.; Tous, M.; Canals, J.; Guxens, M.; Fernández-Barrés, S.; Ibarluzea, J.; Babarro, I.; Soler-Blasco, R.; Llop, S.; Vioque, J.; Sunyer, J.; Julvez, J. Association of Iron Status and Intake During Pregnancy with Neuropsychological Outcomes in Children Aged 7 Years: The Prospective Birth Cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2999.

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