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Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131 Induce the Expression of the REG3 Family in the Small Intestine of Mice via the Stimulation of Dendritic Cells and Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells

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Applied Microbiology Research Department, Food Microbiology and Function Research Laboratories, R&D Division, Meiji Co., Ltd., Hachiouji, Tokyo 192-0919, Japan
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Basic Microbiology Research Department, Food Microbiology and Function Research Laboratories, R&D Division, Meiji Co., Ltd., Hachiouji, Tokyo 192-0919, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122998
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 7 December 2019
Accumulating evidence clarifies that intestinal barrier function, for example, by the mucus layer, antimicrobial peptides, immune systems, and epithelial tight junctions, plays crucial roles in maintaining our health. We reported previously that yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131 induced the gene expression of the regenerating family member 3 (REG3) family, which encodes antimicrobial peptides in the small intestine, although it was unclear how the yogurt activated the intestinal cells related to it. Here, we evaluated the cytokine production from the intestinal immune cells stimulated by these strains in vitro and in vivo to elucidate the mechanism for the induction of the REG3 family by the yogurt. The results showed that stimulation by both strains induced interleukin (IL)-23 production from bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and IL-22 production from small intestinal lamina propria (LP) cells. In addition, oral administration of these strains to mice increased IL-23p19+ LPDCs and IL-22+ type 3 innate lymphoid cells and induced the expression of Reg3g in small intestinal tissue. Moreover, we showed that the activities for the induction of IL-23 by DCs were strain dependent on L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus and that S. thermophilus 1131, which is the predominant species in the yogurt, exhibited relatively higher activity compared to the other strains of S. thermophilus. Our findings suggested that these yogurt starter strains, L. bulgaricus 2038 and S. thermophilus 1131, have the potential to maintain and improve intestinal barrier function by stimulating immune cells in the LP. View Full-Text
Keywords: lactic acid bacteria; dendritic cell; type 3 innate immune cell; interleukin-23; interleukin-22; REG3 family lactic acid bacteria; dendritic cell; type 3 innate immune cell; interleukin-23; interleukin-22; REG3 family
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Kobayashi, K.; Honme, Y.; Sashihara, T. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131 Induce the Expression of the REG3 Family in the Small Intestine of Mice via the Stimulation of Dendritic Cells and Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2998.

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