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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Vitamin C and Antioxidant Profiles in Saliva and Serum in Patients with Periodontitis and Ischemic Heart Disease

1
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95124 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, School of Dentistry, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2956; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122956
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
Vitamin C and antioxidants play a crucial role in endothelial function and may be a link for the known interaction of periodontitis and ischemic heart disease (CAD). This pilot study evaluates the association of gingival health, periodontitis, CAD, or both conditions with salivary and serum vitamin C and antioxidant levels. The clinical and periodontal characteristics, serum, and saliva samples were collected from 36 patients with periodontitis, 35 patients with CAD, 36 patients with periodontitis plus CAD, and 36 healthy controls. Levels of vitamin C, antioxidants, and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed with a commercially available kit. The median concentrations of salivary and serum vitamin C and antioxidants (α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, and lycopene) were significantly lower in the CAD group (p < 0.001) and in the periodontitis plus CAD group (p < 0.001) compared to periodontitis patients and controls. In univariate models, periodontitis (p = 0.034), CAD (p < 0.001), and hs-CRP (p < 0.001) were significantly negatively associated with serum vitamin C; whereas, in a multivariate model, only hs-CRP remained a significant predictor of serum vitamin C (p < 0.001). In a multivariate model, the significant predictors of salivary vitamin C levels were triglycerides (p = 0.028) and hs-CRP (p < 0.001). Patients with CAD and periodontitis plus CAD presented lower levels of salivary and serum vitamin C compared to healthy subjects and periodontitis patients. hs-CRP was a significant predictor of decreased salivary and serum vitamin C levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin C; retinol; α-carotene; β-carotene; β-cryptoxanthin; γ-tocopherol; lutein; zeaxanthin; lycopene; periodontitis; ischemic heart disease; C-reactive protein; cardiovascular disease; clinical trial vitamin C; retinol; α-carotene; β-carotene; β-cryptoxanthin; γ-tocopherol; lutein; zeaxanthin; lycopene; periodontitis; ischemic heart disease; C-reactive protein; cardiovascular disease; clinical trial
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Isola, G.; Polizzi, A.; Muraglie, S.; Leonardi, R.; Lo Giudice, A. Assessment of Vitamin C and Antioxidant Profiles in Saliva and Serum in Patients with Periodontitis and Ischemic Heart Disease. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2956.

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