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Reduction of Serum Concentrations and Synergy between Retinol, β-Carotene, and Zinc According to Cancer Staging and Different Treatment Modalities Prior to Radiation Therapy in Women with Breast Cancer

1
Social Applied Nutrition Department, Micronutrients Research Center (NPqM), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21.941-902, Brazil
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Ingá Radiotherapy Clinic (CRI), Brazilian Institute of Oncology (IBO), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Niterói 24.210-470, Brazil
3
Department of Radiation Oncology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 22.451-900, Brazil
4
Department of Radiology, Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21.941-902, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2953; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122953
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 1 September 2019 / Accepted: 15 September 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
The procedures used for breast cancer treatment are able to increase the level of oxidative stress and cause depletion of antioxidants. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, and zinc, according to breast cancer staging, considering different treatment modalities prior to radiation therapy and the synergistic action between these micronutrients. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study comprising a cohort of patients with breast cancer which was carried out prior to radiation therapy. Patients were divided into 3 groups: G1 comprised women who had undergone breast-conserving surgery, G2 comprised those who had undergone chemotherapy, and G3 those who had undergone breast-conserving surgery and chemotherapy. Serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, and zinc were quantified. Breast cancer staging was based on the TNM (Tumor, Node, Metastasis) classification of malignant tumors, a type of staging tool for different cancers. Results: A total of 230 patients were assessed. A decrease of the serum concentrations of the micronutrients assessed as the staging level of the disease increased was observed. Surgery alone had a greater negative impact on serum concentrations of retinol. Considering the treatments prior to radiotherapy, patients undergoing surgery alone and chemotherapy associated with surgery had higher percentages of deficiency of β-carotene and retinol. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of zinc, retinol, and β-carotene, showing a synergy between these micronutrients. Conclusion: A significant reduction in the serum concentrations of the assessed micronutrients was observed, according to the increase in breast cancer staging. The synergy between the micronutrients must be considered in order to maximize the benefits and minimize the adverse effects of irradiation to normal cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiotherapy; antioxidants; toxicity; chemotherapy; conservative surgery; breast cancer radiotherapy; antioxidants; toxicity; chemotherapy; conservative surgery; breast cancer
MDPI and ACS Style

Rosa, C.; Franca, C.; Lanes Vieira, S.; Carvalho, A.; Penna, A.; Nogueira, C.; Lessa, S.; Ramalho, A. Reduction of Serum Concentrations and Synergy between Retinol, β-Carotene, and Zinc According to Cancer Staging and Different Treatment Modalities Prior to Radiation Therapy in Women with Breast Cancer. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2953.

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