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Article

The Effect of Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate Variability in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

1
Department of Nephrology, Akershus University Hospital, 1478 Lørenskog, Norway
2
Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
3
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
4
Department of Nephrology, Aalborg University Hospital, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
5
Steno Diabetes Center Aarhus and Zealand, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
6
Department of Organ transplantation, University hospital of Oslo, 0372 Rikshospitalet, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2847; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122847
Received: 22 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 16 November 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD))
Resting heart rate (rHR) and heart rate variability (HRV) are non-invasive measurements that predict the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may decrease rHR, increase HRV, and reduce the risk of SCD. To date, no studies have investigated the effect of marine n-3 PUFA on HRV in renal transplant recipients. In a randomized controlled trial, 132 renal transplant recipients were randomized to receive either three 1 g capsules of marine n-3 PUFA, each containing 460 mg/g EPA and 380 mg/g DHA, or control (olive oil) for 44 weeks. HRV was calculated in the time and frequency domains during a conventional cardiovascular reflex test (response to standing, deep breathing, and Valsalva maneuver) and during 2 min of resting in the supine position. There was no significant effect of marine n-3 PUFA supplementation on time-domain HRV compared with controls. rHR decreased 3.1 bpm (± 13.1) for patients receiving marine n-3 PUFA compared to 0.8 (± 11.0) in controls (p = 0.28). In the frequency domain HRV analyses, there was a significant change in response to standing in both high and low frequency measures, 2.9 (p = 0.04, 95% CI (1.1;8)) and 2.7 (p = 0.04, 95% CI (1.1;6.5)), respectively. In conclusion, 44 weeks of supplemental marine n-3 PUFAs in renal transplant recipients significantly improved the cardiac autonomic function, assessed by measuring HRV during conventional cardiovascular reflex tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine n-3 PUFA; heart rate variability; resting heart rate; renal transplant recipients marine n-3 PUFA; heart rate variability; resting heart rate; renal transplant recipients
MDPI and ACS Style

Lilleberg, H.S.; Cichosz, S.L.; Svensson, M.; Christensen, J.H.; Fleischer, J.; Eide, I.; Jenssen, T. The Effect of Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate Variability in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2847. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122847

AMA Style

Lilleberg HS, Cichosz SL, Svensson M, Christensen JH, Fleischer J, Eide I, Jenssen T. The Effect of Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate Variability in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2019; 11(12):2847. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122847

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lilleberg, Hanne S., Simon L. Cichosz, My Svensson, Jeppe H. Christensen, Jesper Fleischer, Ivar Eide, and Trond Jenssen. 2019. "The Effect of Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Heart Rate Variability in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial" Nutrients 11, no. 12: 2847. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122847

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