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Leptin, Obesity, and Leptin Resistance: Where Are We 25 Years Later?

1
Laboratory of Epigenomics in Endocrinology and Nutrition, Epigenomics Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Santiago (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS/SERGAS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
CIBER de Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBERobn), Instituto Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Santiago (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4
Molecular Endocrinolgy, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112704
Received: 2 August 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptin)
Leptin, a hormone that is capable of effectively reducing food intake and body weight, was initially considered for use in the treatment of obesity. However, obese subjects have since been found to have high levels of circulating leptin and to be insensitive to the exogenous administration of leptin. The inability of leptin to exert its anorexigenic effects in obese individuals, and therefore, the lack of clinical utility of leptin in obesity, is defined as leptin resistance. This phenomenon has not yet been adequately characterized. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying leptin resistance is of vital importance for the application of leptin as an effective treatment for obesity. Leptin must cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to reach the hypothalamus and exert its anorexigenic functions. The mechanisms involved in leptin transportation across the blood–brain barrier continue to be unclear, thereby preventing the clinical application of leptin in the treatment of obesity. In recent years, new strategies have been developed to recover the response to leptin in obesity. We have summarized these strategies in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: leptin; obesity; leptin resistance; blood brain barrier leptin; obesity; leptin resistance; blood brain barrier
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Izquierdo, A.G.; Crujeiras, A.B.; Casanueva, F.F.; Carreira, M.C. Leptin, Obesity, and Leptin Resistance: Where Are We 25 Years Later? Nutrients 2019, 11, 2704.

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