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Review

Relevance of Leptin and Other Adipokines in Obesity-Associated Cardiovascular Risk

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Department of Internal Medicine, General Health Check-up Unit, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pío XII, 36, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
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Department of Surgery, Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery Unit, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
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Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
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Obesity and Adipobiology Group, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra (IdiSNA), 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
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Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 28027 Madrid, Spain
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Metabolic Research Laboratory, Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
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CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Pamplona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112664
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 2 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 5 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leptin)
Obesity, which is a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions including type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Adipose tissue is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue only for energy storage. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a large number of hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins, and growth and vasoactive factors, which are collectively called adipokines known to influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. In the obese state, excessive visceral fat accumulation causes adipose tissue dysfunctionality that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related comorbidities. The mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction include adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, increased inflammation, impaired extracellular matrix remodeling, and fibrosis together with an altered secretion of adipokines. This review describes the relevance of specific adipokines in the obesity-associated cardiovascular disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; adipokines; leptin; resistin; visfatin; osteopontin; adiponectin; omentin-1; ghrelin; obestatin obesity; adipokines; leptin; resistin; visfatin; osteopontin; adiponectin; omentin-1; ghrelin; obestatin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Landecho, M.F.; Tuero, C.; Valentí, V.; Bilbao, I.; de la Higuera, M.; Frühbeck, G. Relevance of Leptin and Other Adipokines in Obesity-Associated Cardiovascular Risk. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2664. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112664

AMA Style

Landecho MF, Tuero C, Valentí V, Bilbao I, de la Higuera M, Frühbeck G. Relevance of Leptin and Other Adipokines in Obesity-Associated Cardiovascular Risk. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2664. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112664

Chicago/Turabian Style

Landecho, Manuel F.; Tuero, Carlota; Valentí, Víctor; Bilbao, Idoia; de la Higuera, Magdalena; Frühbeck, Gema. 2019. "Relevance of Leptin and Other Adipokines in Obesity-Associated Cardiovascular Risk" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2664. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112664

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