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The Effectiveness of Different Doses of Iron Supplementation and the Prenatal Determinants of Maternal Iron Status in Pregnant Spanish Women: ECLIPSES Study
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Anemia of Inflammation with An Emphasis on Chronic Kidney Disease

Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, Henriette Raphael House Guy’s Campus King’s College London, London SE1 1UL, UK
Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Life Course Sciences, King’s College London. Franklin-Wilkins-Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2424;
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 29 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Anemia)
Iron is vital for a vast variety of cellular processes and its homeostasis is strictly controlled and regulated. Nevertheless, disorders of iron metabolism are diverse and can be caused by insufficiency, overload or iron mal-distribution in tissues. Iron deficiency (ID) progresses to iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) after iron stores are depleted. Inflammation is of diverse etiology in anemia of chronic disease (ACD). It results in serum hypoferremia and tissue hyperferritinemia, which are caused by elevated serum hepcidin levels, and this underlies the onset of functional iron-deficiency anemia. Inflammation is also inhibitory to erythropoietin function and may directly increase hepcidin level, which influences iron metabolism. Consequently, immune responses orchestrate iron metabolism, aggravate iron sequestration and, ultimately, impair the processes of erythropoiesis. Hence, functional iron-deficiency anemia is a risk factor for several ailments, disorders and diseases. Therefore, therapeutic strategies depend on the symptoms, severity, comorbidities and the associated risk factors of anemia. Oral iron supplements can be employed to treat ID and mild anemia particularly, when gastrointestinal intolerance is minimal. Intravenous (IV) iron is the option in moderate and severe anemic conditions, for patients with compromised intestinal integrity, or when oral iron is refractory. Erythropoietin (EPO) is used to treat functional iron deficiency, and blood transfusion is restricted to refractory patients or in life-threatening emergency situations. Despite these interventions, many patients remain anemic and do not respond to conventional treatment approaches. However, various novel therapies are being developed to treat persistent anemia in patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron; anemia; kidney; hepcidin; erythropoietin iron; anemia; kidney; hepcidin; erythropoietin
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Begum, S.; Latunde-Dada, G.O. Anemia of Inflammation with An Emphasis on Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2424.

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