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Open AccessArticle

Human Milk Oligosaccharide, Phospholipid, and Ganglioside Concentrations in Breast Milk from United Arab Emirates Mothers: Results from the MISC Cohort

1
Fonterra Research and Development Centre, Dairy Farm Road, Private Bag 11029, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
2
Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Health Sciences, Research Institute of Medical and Health Sciences (RIMHS), University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE
3
School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Malaysia
4
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
5
Family Health Promotion Centre, Sharjah 27272, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102400
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 8 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Nutrition and Future Health)
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), phospholipids (PLs), and gangliosides (GAs) are components of human breast milk that play important roles in the development of the rapidly growing infant. The differences in these components in human milk from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were studied in a cross-sectional trial. High-performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry was used to determine HMO, PL, and GA concentrations in transitional (5–15 days) and mature (at 6 months post-partum) breast milk of mothers of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results showed that the average HMO (12 species), PL (7 species), and GA (2 species) concentrations quantified in the UAE mothers’ transitional milk samples were (in mg/L) 8204 ± 2389, 269 ± 89, and 21.18 ± 11.46, respectively, while in mature milk, the respective concentrations were (in mg/L) 3905 ± 1466, 220 ± 85, and 20.18 ± 9.75. The individual HMO concentrations measured in this study were all significantly higher in transitional milk than in mature milk, except for 3 fucosyllactose, which was higher in mature milk. In this study, secretor and non-secretor phenotype mothers showed no significant difference in the total HMO concentration. For the PL and GA components, changes in the individual PL and GA species distribution was observed between transitional milk and mature milk. However, the changes were within the ranges found in human milk from other regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; human milk oligosaccharides; phospholipids; sphingomyelin; gangliosides; LC–MS human milk; human milk oligosaccharides; phospholipids; sphingomyelin; gangliosides; LC–MS
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McJarrow, P.; Radwan, H.; Ma, L.; MacGibbon, A.K.; Hashim, M.; Hasan, H.; Obaid, R.S.; Naja, F.; Mohamed, H.J.J.; Al Ghazal, H.; Fong, B.Y. Human Milk Oligosaccharide, Phospholipid, and Ganglioside Concentrations in Breast Milk from United Arab Emirates Mothers: Results from the MISC Cohort. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2400.

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