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Open AccessReview

Vitamin D as a Biomarker of Ill Health among the Over-50s: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy
Epidemiology Centre of Local Health Unit of Vercelli, 12100 Vercelli, Italy
I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Piancavallo, 28921 Verbania, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2384;
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 6 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Obesity)
Background: The association between circulating levels of vitamin D and the incidence of chronic diseases is known. The identification of vitamin D as a biomarker of physiological/pathological ageing could contribute to expanding current knowledge of its involvement in healthy ageing. Methods: According to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted on cohorts studying the role of 25OH-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] concentrations as biomarkers of healthy ageing. We consulted MedLine, Scopus, and Web of Science to search for studies on the association between vitamin D status in populations of originally healthy adults, and outcomes of longevity, illness, and physical and cognitive functionality. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Results: Twenty cohorts from 24 articles were selected for this review. Inverse associations were found between low 25(OH)D levels and all-cause mortality, respiratory and cardiovascular events, as well as markers relating to hip and non-vertebral fractures. Associations between 1,25(OH)2D and healthy ageing outcomes gave similar results, although of lower clinical significance. Conclusions: This systematic review pinpoints peculiar aspects of vitamin D as a multidimensional predictor of ill health in the ageing process. Further well-designed controlled trials to investigate whether vitamin D supplement results in superior outcomes are warranted in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; healthy ageing; cohorts vitamin D; healthy ageing; cohorts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Caristia, S.; Filigheddu, N.; Barone-Adesi, F.; Sarro, A.; Testa, T.; Magnani, C.; Aimaretti, G.; Faggiano, F.; Marzullo, P. Vitamin D as a Biomarker of Ill Health among the Over-50s: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2384.

AMA Style

Caristia S, Filigheddu N, Barone-Adesi F, Sarro A, Testa T, Magnani C, Aimaretti G, Faggiano F, Marzullo P. Vitamin D as a Biomarker of Ill Health among the Over-50s: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies. Nutrients. 2019; 11(10):2384.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Caristia, Silvia; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Sarro, Andrea; Testa, Tommaso; Magnani, Corrado; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Marzullo, Paolo. 2019. "Vitamin D as a Biomarker of Ill Health among the Over-50s: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies" Nutrients 11, no. 10: 2384.

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