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Open AccessReview

Vitamin D as a Biomarker of Ill Health among the Over-50s: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

1
Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy
2
Epidemiology Centre of Local Health Unit of Vercelli, 12100 Vercelli, Italy
3
I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Piancavallo, 28921 Verbania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102384
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 6 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Obesity)
Background: The association between circulating levels of vitamin D and the incidence of chronic diseases is known. The identification of vitamin D as a biomarker of physiological/pathological ageing could contribute to expanding current knowledge of its involvement in healthy ageing. Methods: According to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review was conducted on cohorts studying the role of 25OH-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25(OH)2-Vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] concentrations as biomarkers of healthy ageing. We consulted MedLine, Scopus, and Web of Science to search for studies on the association between vitamin D status in populations of originally healthy adults, and outcomes of longevity, illness, and physical and cognitive functionality. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Results: Twenty cohorts from 24 articles were selected for this review. Inverse associations were found between low 25(OH)D levels and all-cause mortality, respiratory and cardiovascular events, as well as markers relating to hip and non-vertebral fractures. Associations between 1,25(OH)2D and healthy ageing outcomes gave similar results, although of lower clinical significance. Conclusions: This systematic review pinpoints peculiar aspects of vitamin D as a multidimensional predictor of ill health in the ageing process. Further well-designed controlled trials to investigate whether vitamin D supplement results in superior outcomes are warranted in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; healthy ageing; cohorts vitamin D; healthy ageing; cohorts
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Caristia, S.; Filigheddu, N.; Barone-Adesi, F.; Sarro, A.; Testa, T.; Magnani, C.; Aimaretti, G.; Faggiano, F.; Marzullo, P. Vitamin D as a Biomarker of Ill Health among the Over-50s: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2384.

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