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Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010134

Quantification of Lutein + Zeaxanthin Presence in Human Placenta and Correlations with Blood Levels and Maternal Dietary Intake

1
Department of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Nebraska Medicine, 981200 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 981205 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-1205, USA
3
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
4
Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, City University of New York, 55 West 125th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA
5
Division of Endocrinology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, 984130 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha NE 68198-4130, USA
6
College of Allied Health Professions, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 984045 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-4045, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Human Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [239 KB, uploaded 10 January 2019]   |   Review Reports

Abstract

Lutein + zeaxanthin (L + Z) are carotenoids recognized in eye health, but less is known about their status during pregnancy. While quantified in maternal and umbilical cord blood, they have never been analyzed in placenta. The purpose of this study is to quantify combined L + Z concentrations in human placenta and correlate with levels in maternal dietary intake, maternal serum, and umbilical cord blood. The proportions of combined L + Z were compared within diet, placenta, maternal serum, and umbilical cord blood among additional carotenoids (lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene). This Institutional Review Boardapproved cross-sectional study enrolled 82 mother-infant pairs. Placenta, maternal serum, and umbilical cord blood samples were analyzed for carotenoids concentrations. Mothers completed a food frequency questionnaire and demographic/birth outcome data were collected. L + Z were present in placenta, median 0.105 micrograms/gram (mcg/g) and were significantly correlated with maternal serum (r = 0.57; p < 0.001), umbilical cord blood levels (r = 0.49; p = 0.001), but not dietary intake (p = 0.110). L + Z were the most prevalent in placenta (49.1%) umbilical cord blood (37.0%), but not maternal serum (18.6%) or dietary intake (19.4%). Rate of transfer was 16.0%, the highest of all carotenoids. Conclusively, L + Z were identified as the two most prevalent in placenta. Results highlight unique roles L + Z may play during pregnancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: lutein; zeaxanthin; carotenoid; placenta; pregnancy lutein; zeaxanthin; carotenoid; placenta; pregnancy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Thoene, M.; Anderson-Berry, A.; Van Ormer, M.; Furtado, J.; Soliman, G.A.; Goldner, W.; Hanson, C. Quantification of Lutein + Zeaxanthin Presence in Human Placenta and Correlations with Blood Levels and Maternal Dietary Intake. Nutrients 2019, 11, 134.

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